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Pronunciation Guide
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With the exception of a few familiar names which have been retained in older forms, the Chinese names throughout these pages have been written in the system used in mainland China, Pinyin. Pinyin is generally pronounced phonetically, although there are a few idiosyncrasies.

Pronounced as they are in English: b d f g j k l m n p s t w y ch sh

c = ts as in "lets"
h = ch as in Scottish "loch"
q = ch as in "chick" or "chin"
x = sh as in "ship" or "sheen"
zh = j as in "jam" or "jump"

a = ah as in "hurrah"
ai = ie as in "tie"
an = ahn as in "yon"
ao = ow as in "how"


e = oo as in "look"
ei = ay as in "hay"
en = un as in "bun"

i = ee as in "fee"
i = with some letters, "y"
ia = ya as in "yard"

o = aw as in "jaw"
ou = oe as in "toe" or "Joe"

u = oo as in "coo"
u = with some letters, "w"
ua = wah

Examples: Qin = "chin," Zhou = "joe," Han = "hahn," Xianyang = "shan-yahng"

Pinyin Wade-Giles (older system)
People
Empress Dowager Cixi Tz'u-his
Deng Xiaoping Teng Hsiao-p'ing
The Kangxi Emperor The K'ang-hsi Emperor
Lao Zi Lao-tzu
Li Bai or Li Bo Li Po
Mao Zedong Mao Tse-tung
Meng Zi Mencius
The Qianlong Emperor The Ch'ien-lung Emperor
Qin Shihuangdi Ch'in Shih-huang-ti
Su Dongpo Su Tong-p'o
The Yongle Emperor The Yung-lo Emperor
Zhou Enlai Chou En-lai
Place Names
Anhui Anhwei
Beijing Peking
Chang Jiang Yangtze Kiang or Yangtze River
Chengdu Chengtu
Chongquing Chungking
Datong Tatung
Dunhuang Tunhuang
Fujian Fukien
Fuzhou Foochow
Gansu Kansu
Guangdong Kwantung
Guangzhou Canton
Guangxi Kwangsi Chuang
Guilin Kweilin
Guizhou Kweichow
Hangzhou Hangchow
Hankow Hankow
Hebei Hopeh
Heilongjiang Heilunkiang
Henan Honan
Huang He Hwang Ho or Yellow River
Hubei Hupeh
Hunan Hunan
Jiangsu Kiangsu
Jiangxi Kiangsi
Jilin Kirin
Lanzhou Lanchow
Liaoning Liaoning
Nanjing Nanking
Nei Menggu Inner Mongolia
Ningbo Ningpo
Ningxia Ningsia
Qingdao Ts'ingtao
Qinghai Tsinghai
Shangdong Shantung
Shanghai Shanghai
Shaanxi Shansi
Shaoxing Shaohsing
Sichuan Szechwan
Tianjin Tientsin
Turpan Turfan
Urumqi Urumchi
Xiamen Amoy
Xi'an Sian
Xinjiang Sinkiang
Xizang Tibet
Yan'an Yenan
Yunnan Yunnan
Zheijiang Chekiang


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