For Primary Teachers:
Build a Word Wall!
analyze: to examine the unique features of a work of art as they relate to the elements of the art form and principles of design, composition, performance, and/or production; to identify and examine separate parts as they function independently and together in works of art.
binary form: two-part structure; AB.
call and response: a structure often associated with African music and dance forms, although it is also used elsewhere, including in classical, folk, traditional, and other primal forms. One soloist/group performs, with the second soloist answering or entering in “response.”
classical dance: dance that has been developed over time into highly stylized structures and forms within a culture. Classical forms are generally developed within the court or circle of power in a society.
- AB—a form made up of two contrasting sections, each of which may or may not be repeated.
- ABA—a three-part compositional form in which the second section contrasts with the first section. The third section is a restatement of the first section and can be in a condensed, abbreviated, or extended form.
- narrative—choreographic structure that follows a specific story line to convey specific information through the story.
describe: part of the initial process of responding to works of art. Refers to identifying and communicating, orally or in writing, the elements of the specific art form present in a work; also refers to when, where, and by whom the work was done.
dynamics: the dance element that relates to how a movement is done; movement quality.
force (energy): degree of muscular tension and use of energy while moving, such as heavy/light, sharp/smooth, tension/relaxation, bound/flowing. Tension/relaxation: Tension feels hard and tight; relaxation feels soft and loose.
improvisation: movement that is created spontaneously, ranging from free-form to highly structured, but always with an element of chance. Improvisation provides the dancer with the opportunity to bring together elements quickly and requires focus and concentration. It is instant and simultaneous choreography and performance.
initiation: the point at which movement is said to originate. It particularly refers to specific body parts and is generally said to be either distal (from the limbs or head) or central (from the torso).
interpret: this process of responding to works of art identifies the ideas, feelings, moods, and overall meaning communicated by the work of art. It also calls for the investigation of the influence of time and place upon the artist who created the work.
kinesphere: see space.
- walk: steps from one foot to the other, with the weight being transferred from heel to toe.
- run: steps from one foot to another performed at a relatively fast tempo.
- hop: a movement whereby the body is propelled through space by springing from one foot and landing on the same foot.
- jump: a movement whereby the body is propelled through space by springing from two feet and landing on two feet.
- leap: a movement whereby the body is propelled through space by springing from one foot and landing on the other foot.
- gallop: a sliding step whereby the body is propelled through space in an uneven rhythm, so the same foot is always leading.
- skip: a step and a hop, alternating feet.
movement quality: the identifying attributes created by the gathering, release, follow-through, and termination of energy in the body, which are key to making movement expressive and therefore dance-like. Typical terms denoting movement quality include, but are not limited to, smooth, sustained, swinging, percussive, and vibratory as well as effort combinations such as float, dab, punch, and glide. See also dynamics.
non-locomotor movements: movement that is performed around the axis of the body rather than designed for travel from place to place, such as bend and stretch, push and pull, rise and sink, swing and sway, twist and turn, shake; also called axial movements.
pathways: patterns we make as we move through the air or around the floor (i.e., straight, vertical, horizontal, zig-zag). Can be made with locomotor or non-locomotor movements, separately or in combination.
- general space—the dance area.
- personal space (also called kinesphere)—the area of space occupied by the dancer's body.
- size—the magnitude of a body shape or movement, from small to large.
tertiary form: three-part structure; ABA.
- duration—the length of time a movement lasts.
- tempo—the speed with which a movement is performed.
- beat—the underlying rhythmic pulse.
warm-up: movements and/or movement phrases designed to raise the core body temperature and bring the mind into focus for the dance activities that follow.