Events of the 20th Century Teacher's Guide

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Events of the 20th Century Series Program 1
Apollo XI

Videotape Teaching Guide
Video: 15 minutes

Major Concepts


Summary
The year 1961 brought with it a new president and a new challenge: to have a man walk on 
the moon by the end of the decade.  This challenge was met on July 20, 1969 when Apollo 
XI landed on the moon.  Through a captivating musical montage of graphics and archival 
film footage, viewers gain an overview of the mission from blast off to splash down.  
Extensive insight is provided by Apollo XI astronaut Buzz Aldrin.  As he shares his unique 
experiences, students will gain a better understanding of this historical feat, and learn the 
importance of meeting a challenge.

Before Viewing
1.  List the glossary terms on the chalkboard or overhead. Tell the students to try to 
interpret the meaning of the terms as they watch the program.  Discuss the terms after 
viewing the video.  When students are in doubt about the meaning of a term, assign a 
student to research the term and then share the information with the class. ( Note: not all the 
glossary terms are in the video program but are essential to the understanding of the subject 
treated in the video.)

Focus Question
To give students a specific purpose for viewing, ask: Why do you think the lunar landing 
was or was not important?

Glossary
Astronaut - a person trained to pilot, navigate, or otherwise participate in the flight of a 
	spacecraft.
Command Module - a self-contained unit of a spacecraft that performs a specific task or 
	class of tasks in support of the major function of the craft.
Decade - a period of ten years.
Lunar Module - a spacecraft designed to transport astronauts from a command module 
	orbiting the moon to the lunar surface and back.
Lunarnaut - an astronaut who explores the moon.
Orbit - the path of a celestial body or manmade satellite as it revolves around another body.
Rendezvous - a prearranged meeting place.  The process of bringing two spacecraft 
	together.
Sextant - a navigational instrument used for measuring the altitudes of celestial bodies.
Theory - systematically organized knowledge applicable in a relatively wide variety of 
	circumstances, especially a system of assumptions, accepted principles, and rules 
	of procedure devised to analyze, predict, or otherwise explain the nature of a 
	specified set of phenomena.
Vacuum - the absence of matter.

Questions For Discussion

1. Who were the three astronauts on Apollo XI?  How did they choose who would be the 
first to step on the moon?

2. What was the purpose of the quarantine the astronauts had to go through after they 
returned to Earth?  Discuss and explain your answer.

3. Why were the astronauts so low on fuel when they landed on the moon's surface?  Do 
you think they were in any danger?  Explain.

4. Discuss whether you think it was necessary to send men to the moon.  Were there other 
alternatives?  Explain.

5. Was the United States in a "space race" at the time of Apollo XI?  Explain.  Are we still 
in a "space race"?  Why or why not?

6. Why was communication with the base station so important to the mission?  Explain.

7. What branch of science does space exploration fit into?  Name at least two other 
branches of science.

Interdisciplinary Connections

Language Arts/Social Studies
1.  Assign a student or a group of students to write to the NASA educational department for 
information on the Apollo XI mission as well any other space programs both past and 
present.  Set aside a section of the classroom to display any further information they receive 
as well as other information the other students find for display.   
(Research/Writing/Creativity)  

2.  Using a recorder, have a student or small group of students interview teachers, parents, 
and other relatives, about what they were doing when Apollo XI landed on the moon.  Ask 
what they thought at the time and how they felt about the accomplishment.  Have the tapes 
played back for the entire class to hear.  (Research/Cooperation/Listening/Creativity)

3.  Assign a group of students to go to the school and local libraries and prepare a list of 
titles dealing with NASA and the space missions it has launched.  Place the list on the 
classroom bulletin board for students to select from for reading or research.    
(Research/Writing/Reading)

4.  Assign students to write short biographies of the following:
	1.  Sir William Congreve
	2.  Konstantin Ziolkovsky
	3.  Dr. Robert H. Goddard
	4.  Herman Oberth
	5.  Herman Ganswindt
	6.  Wernher von Braun
	(Research/Writing/Speaking)

Art
1.  Assign several students (or ask for volunteers) to make a paper mache model of the 
	moon.(Research/Creativity)
2.  Assign a student or group of students to draw, on poster board, a three stage rocket and 
	have them label the important parts.    (Research/Creativity/Cooperation)

Math
1.  Assign a group of students, or the entire class to find the weight of a 100-pound item on 
each of the planets in our solar system as well as on the moon.  Have them graph the 
results.  (Research/Writing/Interpretation)

Science
1.  Assign a group of students to do a written or oral report on the VI and V2 rockets the 
	Germans used during World War II.  (Research/Writing/Speaking) 
2.  Duplicate the last page for each student and have them complete this guide.

After Viewing

1. Review glossary terms for reinforcement.  
2. Convert major concepts into questions to see if students understand each concept.
3. Review Focus questions.
4. Have students tell one important thing they have learned from this program.

Dateline
Listed below are a list of events that deal with the United States Space Program.  Place the 
	letters of the events next to the year the event took place.
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1969
1973
1976
1981
1984
1986
1990
1997
A. Challenger space shuttle disaster
C. First U. S. Satellite
E. First American orbits Earth
G. Columbia space shuttle
I. Explorer VI
K. Discover 2 Tiros 1 launched
M. Skylab launched
O. First woman to walk in space
B. First man to walk on the moon 
D. Sputnik launched
F. First American launched into space.
H. Hubble Telescope	
J. Explorer 1 and 3
L. Hubble Telescope launched
N. Viking 1 

Events of the 20th Century Series Program 2
Chernobyl:  Lessons Learned

Videotape Teaching Guide
Video: 15 minutes

Major Concepts


Summary
This informative program provides students with a brief history of the nuclear disaster at 
Chernobyl, and explains how its people continue to be affected to this day.  The many 
lessons to be learned from this human tragedy become clear as events leading up to the 
explosion and the resulting political cover-up are examined.  Cancer specialist Dr. Robert 
Gale, a doctor who treated victims immediately after the disaster, revisits the area and some 
of his patients.  Through these personal stories, students learn that Chernobyl was a 
disaster that affected everyone and they hear the lessons that have been learned from the 
tragedy.

Before Viewing
1.  List the glossary terms on the chalkboard or overhead. Tell the students to try to 
interpret the meaning of the terms as they watch the program.  Discuss the terms after 
viewing the video.  When students are in doubt about the meaning of a term, assign a 
student to research the term and then share the information with the class. ( Note: not all the 
glossary terms are in the video program but are essential to the understanding of the subject 
treated in the video.)

Focus Question
To give students a specific purpose for viewing, ask: How does the explosion of a nuclear 
energy plant in one part of the world effect the environment of the entire world?

Glossary
Atom- the smallest particle of a chemical element that has the chemical properties of that 
	element.  It is made up of a central nucleus containing protons and neutrons around 
	which electrons travel in circular or elliptical paths.
Cesium (Cs)- a soft, silver colored metallic element used in photoelectric cells.  It is one of 
	the rarest metals.  Cesium 137 is a dangerous radionuclide.
Contaminate- to make unclean or impure by contact; pollute.
Energy- the capacity for doing work.  Energy takes various different forms, such as 
	radiant, electrical, chemical, and mechanical.
Graphite- a soft black crystalline form of carbon, commonly used as a lubricant when 
	mixed with oil and as lead for pencils when mixed with clay.
Neutron- a particle that forms part of the nucleus of an atom and carries no electric charge.
Nuclear Energy (Atomic Energy)- energy obtained from controlled nuclear fission or 
	fusion.
Plutonium- a silvery, poisonous radioactive metallic element produced artificially from 
	uranium.
Radioactivity- the giving off of energy in the form of alpha and beta particles and gamma 
	rays from the nuclei of the atoms during a process of disintegration, in which atoms 
	of one element are changed into atoms of another element.
Spewed- to cast up, throw out, or discharge; eject.
Thyroid- an endocrine gland that secretes thyroxine, located in front of and on either side of 
	the trachea.



Questions For Discussion

1. Explain why the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is still being used as a functional plant.

2. Discuss the cause of the accident at Chernobyl.

3. What is the "Zone of Estrangement" and how far does it extend?  How long will this 
	zone be in place? Why?

4.  Answer the following statements with True or False.  If the statement is false-correct it.
a.  Cancers caused by radiation will always develop immediately.
b.  Lung cancer can be caused by inhaling one atom of plutonium.
c.  All of the plutonium atoms released at Chernobyl disappeared in one month.
d.  Human intervention can hasten the decay process of plutonium atoms.

5. Should the Russian government have told the truth about the accident to the people 
immediately?  Explain.

6. Why do scientists think there are so many cases of thyroid cancer in children from 
Chernobyl?  Explain.

7. Who was Dr. Robert Gale and what role did he play in the Chernobyl incident?

8.  What lesson do you think the world should have learned from the Chernobyl accident?  
Explain.

Interdisciplinary Connections

Language Arts/Science
1.  Assign a group of students to write to the Atomic Energy Commission asking for 
whatever brochures, literature, and pictures they have relating to nuclear power plants.  
After receiving the material have students set up a display in the room.  
(Writing/Organizing/Cooperation) 

2.  Assign some students to write short biographies on the following people:  1.  Albert 
Einstein  2.  Dr. Enrico Fermi                      3.  Richard Feynman  4.  Arthur Compton  5.  
J. Robert Oppenheimer  6.  General Leslie Groves  (Research/Writing/Interpretation)  

3.  Assign a student to research and write a paper on the Manhattan Project.  
(Research/Writing/Speaking)

4.  Assign a student to do a report on the difference between fission and fusion reactions.  
(Research/Writing/Interpretation/Speaking)

5.  Construct a cloud chamber by using a clear plastic sandwich box or other similar 
containers.  Paint the bottom of the box black.  Wet two pieces of blotter paper with alcohol 
and place them on the opposite sides of the box.  Place the box on dry ice.  Keep the box 
level for best results.  Place a radioactive source in the middle of the box (check the science 
department) and  cover it with the plastic lid.  After a few minutes, shine a high intensity 
light beam through the box.  If the room is darkened, the vapor tracks will be more visible.  
Students will gain an understanding of natural and artificial nuclear reactions and the 
instruments used by chemists to study, control, and utilize radioactive materials and nuclear 
processes. (Observation/Analysis) 

Art
Assign a student or group of students to draw a reactor and label all the essential parts.  
(Research/Creativity/Cooperation)

Social Studies
1.  Assign a student to research and write a report on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and their 
effect on World War II. (Research/Writing/Speaking/Interpretation)

2.  Reproduce the time line below and give one to each student to do in class or as 
homework.                                 (Ans. 07e, 38b, 39d, 40g, 41f, 42c,h,i,j, 45a)

     Directions: Place the letter from the list below at the appropriate date of the time line.

1907   	1938   	1939   	1940   	1941   	1942   	1945 

a.  Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombed with atomic bomb  b.  Nuclear fission discovered in 
Germany  c.  Fermi begins full scale planning of atomic pile.  d.  First meeting of the 
President's advisory committee on uranium  e.  Einstein's Theory of Relativity        f.  
Study of graphite-uranium lattice piles begin at Columbia University  g.  Discovery of 
plutonium  h.  Groves appointed head of Manhattan Project  i.  Construction of atomic pile 
at the University of Chicago begins  j.  First self-sustaining chain reaction occurs  
(Research/Interpretation)

After Viewing

1. Review glossary terms for reinforcement.  
2. Convert major concepts into questions to see if students understand each concept.
3. Review Focus questions.
4. Have students tell one important thing they have learned from this program.


Events of the 20th Century Series Program 3
JFK Assassination: Transfer of Power 

Videotape Teaching Guide
Video: 15 minutes

Major Concepts


Summary
On November 22, 1963 the world mourned the loss of a president - John F. Kennedy.  As 
the country was grieving, the government faced the question of how to move forward.  
This video program focuses on the role the death of John F. Kennedy played in modifying 
the United States Constitution, the transition of presidential power, and the safety of future 
presidents.  In this in-depth video, a first-hand account from a retired Secret Service Agent 
and the use of archival footage paint a picture of Kennedy's assassination that will never be 
forgotten.  This program takes a look at the assassination of JFK from a different 
perspective. 

Glossary
Assassination-to murder, especially a prominent person.
Opaque-impervious to the passage of light. 
Optimistic-one who habitually or in a particular case expects a favorable outcome. 
Rotunda-a circular building or hall, especially one with a dome. 
Vagueness-not clearly expressed or outlined. Ambiguous in meaning or application. 

Before Viewing
1.  Write the glossary terms on the chalkboard or over-head. Tell the students to try to 
interpret the meaning of the terms as they watch the program.  Discuss the terms after 
viewing the video.  When students are in doubt of the meaning of a term, or have found an 
unfamiliar term, assign someone to research the terms and share the information with the 
class. 

2.  Have the students list in their notebooks what they know about the assassination of 
John F. Kennedy.  After the video, have the students compare their list with the 
information given in the video. 

Focus Question
To give students a specific purpose for viewing, ask: How did JFK's death affect the 
future of the United States government?


Questions For Discussion

1.  What flaws were found in the United States Constitution after President Kennedy was 
assassinated? How were the flaws corrected?

2.  Why do you think the oath of office for the presidency allows the use of either the term 
"swear" or "affirm." 

3.  What recommendation did the Secret Service make about the motorcade in Dallas? What 
do you think would have happened if their recommendations were followed? Explain. 

4.  How important do you think the Zapruder film was? Explain. 

5.  Where can the oath of office for the president be found. Be specific with your answer.  
(Do not say in a book or document.)

6.  Who else was in the car besides President Kennedy and his wife?  What happened, if 
anything, to any of the other passengers in the car? 

7.  What were the first two decisions President Johnson made as acting president? Why do 
you think he made these decisions? 

8.  What was the purpose of the boots being placed backward in the stirrups? When did 
this tradition start? 

Interdisciplinary Connections
Language Arts/Social Studies

1.  Have students invite a group of teachers or parents to the class who can recall the day of 
President Kennedy's assassination.  Have them talk about where they were that day, what 
their feelings were about the news and what they remember of President Kennedy. Discuss 
how the assassination did or did not affect their everyday life from that point on.     
(Listening/Interpretation)  

2.  Have a group of students assume the role of a news reporters during the time of the 
Kennedy assassination and have them create a story about the assassination. They should 
include an informative headline and other items for the page that would be typical for that 
time.   (Research/Creativity/Writing)    

3.  Have some students research the lives of the following people and then write a short 
biography to be shared with the class. 
	President John F. Kennedy	
	President Lyndon B. Johnson
	Lee Harvey Oswald
	Jack Ruby   
    (Research/Writing/Speaking/Cooperation)   

4.  Assign some students to write a one or two page report on the following:
	Bay of Pigs 		Cuban Missle Crisis	Berlin Wall
	New Frontier		Peace Corps
    (Research/Writing/Speaking/Cooperation)     

5.  Have a student or students research and write about what gains were made in the Civil 
Rights Movement during the John F. Kennedy administration.  
(Research/Writing/Speaking/Interpretation) 

6.  Have a group of students working as a team give a report on the Great Society and what 
it accomplished.  (Research/Writing/Cooperation/Interpretation)

7.  Have a team of students research the Lincoln and Kennedy years in the White House, 
including the assassinations. See what similarities they can find.  
(Research/Writing/Cooperation/Interpretation)

8.  Have students prepare a report on what the 1960 election debates were about and what 
effect, if any, they had on the outcome of the election.  
(Research/Writing/Speaking/Analysis)

9.  Plan a mock trial to put Lee Harvey Oswald on trial for the assassination of John F. 
Kennedy.  Appoint two students to act as defense attorneys and two students to act as 
prosecuting attorneys.  Let them decide between them who will take on the role of lead 
lawyer for each side.  Have remaining students act as judge, jury, baliff, court reporter, 
witnesses, news reporters, and spectators. The lawyers should use information from the 
Warren Commission Report, newspapers and any other sources to help them prepare their 
case.  The chosen witnesses should research their parts.  You may want to present the 
mock trial to other classes.    (Research/Creativity/Speaking/Cooperation/Analysis)

10.  Have students pick out a topic from the Kennedy years, (i.e. Peace Corps, Cuban 
Missile Crisis, Bay of Pigs, Civil Rights Movement, and so forth.) Duplicate the last page 
and have each student answer the questions.  This exercise is to help students learn how to 
plan a research paper; however, you may wish them to actually complete a paper.   
(Writing/Critical Analysis)

After Viewing

1. Review glossary terms. 
2. Take out the list they made and have them correct them or add to their list. 
3. Go over focus question and concepts. 
4. Have students tell one new thing they learned from this program. 

Research Project

	 1. What topic did you choose to write on?


	 2. What are some of the questions that you will attempt to answer on your topic?



	 3. What resources will you use to answer your questions? Name people you might 
interview, types or names of books, magazines, videos, internet 
sources or any other resources you can think of. 




 	4. What is the main goal of your project?

	5. Estimate amount of time needed to do research and when you plan to do the 
research. (Time Line)


Events of the 20th Century Series Program 4
Lessons of the Holocaust

Videotape Teaching Guide
Video: 15 minutes

Major Concepts
  

Summary
This program examines the persecution of Jews in Nazi Germany and demonstrates that the 
ideas and opinions of that time are still prevalent in our society today.  In this 
comprehensive video, a first-hand account from a Holocaust survivor and the use of 
archival footage paint a picture of the Holocaust that can't be ignored.  Students will learn 
some very important lessons that will remain with them long after they have left the classroom. 

Before Viewing
1.  Write the glossary terms on the chalkboard or overhead. Tell the students to try to 
interpret the meaning of the terms as they watch the program.  Discuss the terms after 
viewing the video.  When students are in doubt about the meaning of a term, or have found 
an unfamiliar term, assign someone to research the terms and share the information with the 
class. (Note to teacher: Not all the terms will be found in the video program but are 
important to the understanding of the topic.)

Focus Question
To give students a specific purpose for viewing, ask: Why do you believe it is important to 
study the Holocaust?

Glossary
Anti-Semite -a person who is hostile toward or prejudiced against Jews. 
Aryan -of or pertaining to a presumed ethnic type exemplified by or descended from early 
	speakers of Indo-European languages.  In Nazi ideology, a Caucasian gentile, 
	especially of Nordic type. 
Chancellor -the chief minister of state in some European countries.  
Complacent -contented to a fault; self-satisfied.
Crematorium -a place to burn bodies to ashes.  
Exclusionary-to keep or shut out; bar. 
Holocaust-a massive slaughter, especially the genocide of European Jews by the Nazis 
	during World War II. 
Ideology-the body of ideas reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual, 
	group, class, or culture. 
Jude-the German word for Jew.
Pogrom-an organized and often officially encouraged massacre or persecution of a minority 
	group, especially one conducted against the Jews. 
Racism-the notion that one's own ethnic stock is superior. 

Questions For Discussion

1.  Discuss what happened on Krystallnacht.
2.  Discuss  the Nuremberg Laws and their effect on the Jews in Germany. 
3.  Discuss the conditions in Germany after World War I and the effect of this on the Jews. 
4.  Why, in your opinion, did Hitler single out the Jews to persecute? 
5.  Why do you think many German Jews did not flee Germany after Hitler took power?
6.  Give your own explanation of the following statement: "We are our brother's keeper."
7.  Explain what Elane Geller, the Holocaust survivor, meant when she said she "hid" from 
the Germans even though she was in a concentration camp. 

Interdisciplinary Connections

Language Arts/Social Studies

1.  Assign some students to write to the Holocaust Museum in Washington to ask for any 
complimentary materials on the Holocaust. Set up a section of the room to display any 
material that they may receive. Also ask students to bring in materials their families may 
have pertaining to the Holocaust.     (Writing)  

2.  Assign some students to try to secure pictures and articles that deal with the Holocaust 
from magazines, newspapers, or any other source for display in the room.    (Research)    

3.  Assign some students to write a one or two page biography on the following:
	Adolph Hitler 			Heinrich Himmler
	Raoul Wallenberg		Oscar Schindler 
	Elie Wiesel 			Varian Fry
	Simon Wiesenthal   
    (Research/Writing/Interpretation)   

4.  Assign the book The Holocaust Museum in Washington, Rizzoli International 
Publications, Inc. 1995 as class reading.  Have students discuss reactions to this material.  
(Reading/Listening/Interpretation)   

5.  If possible, invite a Holocaust survivor(s) to speak to the class about her/his 
experiences.   (Listening/Interpretation) 

6.  Assign a group of students to give a report on the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.   
(Research/Writing/Interpretation)       

7.  Have small groups of students, working together, select an event dealing with the 
Holocaust (i.e. Babi Yar, Warsaw Uprising, Krystallnacht.) Have each group research 
their event and prepare a display to aid their oral report.  You may choose to display their 
material in a manner similar to a Social Studies Fair and invite other classes to view the 
work.  Their project should be judged on the following basis: written report, visual display 
board, creativity, and oral presentation.   
(Research/Creativity/Writing/Speaking/Interpretation)   

8.  Assign a student or group of students to report on the Nurenberg Laws and their effect 
on the lives of the German Jews.  (Research/Writing/Speaking/Cooperation)

9.  Assign a group of students to go to the school and local libraries to prepare a list of titles 
dealing with the Holocaust. Place the list on the classroom bulletin board for students to 
select from for future reading or research.   (Research/Writing/Reading)

10  Reproduce the following. Have the students read what is written. Have them write out 
what they think the authors' message was.  (Research/Writing/Interpretation)

First they came for the socialist, 
and I did not speak out -
because I was not a socialist.
Then they came for the trade unionists, 
and I did not speak out -
because I was not a trade unionist. 
Then they came for the Jews,
and  I did not speak out -
because I was not a Jew. 
Then they came for me - 
and there was no one left to speak for me. 
	 Martin Niemoller-Anti-Nazi German Pastor  (1892-1984)

After Viewing

1. Review glossary terms. 
2. Review the focus question. 
3. Ask students to name the most important concept they learned from this discussing this 
program. 




Events of the 20th Century Series Program 5
Martin Luther King: The Beginning of the Civil Rights Movement

Videotape Teaching Guide
Video: 17 minutes

Major Concepts


Summary
This program examines the Civil Rights Movement through the words of Dr. Martin Luther 
King. Excerpts from some of his most stirring speeches are put into context through the 
recollections of people who knew him best.  His youngest son, Dexter King, tells us what 
he remembers about Dr. King the visionary and Dr. King the father.  Finally, viewers 
return to Memphis in 1968, for a detailed look at his final days.  

Before Viewing
1.  List the glossary terms on the chalkboard or overhead. Tell the students to try to 
interpret the meaning of the terms as they watch the program.  Discuss the terms after 
viewing the video.  When students are in doubt of the meaning of a term or have found an 
unfamiliar term, assign a student to research the term and share the information with the 
class. (Note: not all the terms are in the video program but are essential to the 
understanding of the subject treated in the video.)

Focus Question
To give students a specific purpose for viewing, ask: What was the main idea Dr. King 
adhered to during the Civil Rights Movement?

Glossary
Civil Disobedience-the refusal to obey a law a person thinks is wrong. 
Civil Rights-rights belonging to a person by virtue of his/her status as a citizen. 
Desegregation-to end the keeping of children in separate school, employment, housing, and 
	so forth. 
Empathize-identification with and understanding of another's situation, feelings, and 
	motives. 
Jim Crow "laws"-the systematic practice of discriminating against and suppressing black 
	people. 
Non-violent-the doctrine, policy, or practice of rejecting violence in favor of peaceful 
	tactics, as a means of gaining political objectives. 
Preparatory-serving to make ready or prepare; introductory.
Principle-moral or ethical standards or judgments collectively. 
Relevant-related to the matter at hand. 
Segregate-to separate or isolate from others or from a main body or group. 
Questions For Discussion

1.  Discuss the importance of the "I Have A Dream" speech.

2.  What do you think Dr. King meant when he said, "Injustice anywhere is a threat to 
justice everywhere."

3.  "The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and 
convenience, but where he stands in times of challenge and controversy." What do you 
think Dr. King meant by this statement? 

4.  According to Dr. King, what was the key to resolving most conflicts?

5.  Why do you think unions were not popular in the South? Explain. 

6.  What do you think was the significance of the march on Washington, D.C.?

Interdisciplinary Connections

Language Arts/Social Studies
1.  Assign a student or a group of students to find a copy of the "I Have A Dream" speech.  
Divide it amongst them to read to the class.  After hearing the speech have the students 
write a paper on their reflections and thoughts.
 (Research/Listening/Writing/Speaking/Interpretation)  

2.  Assign a student or group of students to report to the class on CORE and its 
significance to the Civil Rights Movement.   (Research/Writing/Speaking/Interpretation)  	

3.  Assign a group of students to prepare a report on the life of Martin Luther King, Jr.  
(Research/Writing/Speaking/Interpretation)

4.  Assign a student of group of students to prepare a report on Thurgood Marshall and his 
importance to the Civil Rights Movement.  (Research/Writing/Speaking)

5.  Assign a student or group of students to report on the difference between de facto 
segregation and Jim Crow "laws" in the South.   
(Research/Writing/Speaking/Interpretation)

6.  Assign a group of students to report on the importance of the Brown vs. Board of 
Education decision.     (Research/Writing/Speaking/Interpretation)

7.  Discuss the meaning of the Plessy Rule and the effect Lloyd Gaines and H. Marion 
Sweatt had on this rule.     (Research/Writing/Speaking)

8.  Write a brief analysis of what was contained in the 1957 Civil Rights Act.
 (Research/Writing/Speaking) 

9.   Write a short analysis of role of President Harry S. Truman in the Civil Rights 
Movement.     (Research/Writing/Speaking)

10.  Select students to hold a debate on each of the following:
	a. Non-violent ways of working for Civil Rights are too slow. 
	b. Each person should be able to choose for themselves what laws they will obey or 
		not obey.  
 (Research/Speaking/Interpretation)

11.  Select students to put on a play to show the events that took place when Rosa Park 
refused to give up her seat on the bus.  Have some students play the part of reporters 
asking her questions about her reason for doing what she did. 
(Research/Speaking/Creativity/Interpretation)

12.  Select some students to demonstrate and explain how important boycotts, sit-ins, and 
marches were to the Civil Rights Movement.  (Research/Speaking/Creativity/Interpretation)

13.  Assign some students to make a chart, using  poster board, with the following four 
headings: Date, Method Used to Gain Rights, Groups Involved, and What Was Gained. 
They should research the various groups such as CORE, SNCC and others. 
(Research/Speaking/Creativity)

Math
1.  On the last page of this guide you will find the results of an Opinion Poll taken in 1954, 
1956, 1957 and 1959. Duplicate the worksheet and have the students answer the questions 
related to these polls.  You may wish to use this poll for classroom work or as homework. 
 (Writing/Interpretation) 

After Viewing

1. Review glossary terms for reinforcement.  
2. Go over focus question and concepts. 
3. Have each student relate one new thing they learned from this program. 

Opinion Poll

This poll is based on the question, "Do you approve of the Supreme Court ruling in Brown 
vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas?" Use the results of the polls to answer the 
questions. 

1. List the years the poll was taken. 

2. In the nationwide poll, how did public opinion change between 1954 and 1959?


3. After reviewing the polls, what would you say was the general feeling about school 
integration in the country in 1959? Explain your answer. 




4. Do you think you could conclude from the poll results that there was little discrimination 
against African Americans in the North in the 1950's? Explain. 



5.  What is the average difference of approval and disapproval, in percentage, between the 
Northerners and Southerners? 

6.  Make a graph showing the results of the poll.

June 1954	Feb. 1956 	Aug. 1957	July 1959
Approve
54%
57%
58%
59%
Disapprove
41%
38%
36%
35%
No opinion
5%
5%
6%
6%
Approve
64%
71%
70%
72%
Disapprove
30%
24%
24%
23%
No opinion
6%
5%
6%
5%
Approve
24%
20%
23%
22%
Disapprove
71%
73%
72%
71%
No opinion
5%
7%
5%
7%



Events of the 20th Century Series Program 6
Return to Vietnam 

Videotape  Teaching Guide
Video: 15 minutes

Major Concepts


Summary
This informative program gives a history of the conflict in Vietnam: what led up to it, how 
the United States became involved, and what happened prior to the North Vietnamese 
invasion of Saigon.  Students will then join a high school teacher who was wounded as a 
soldier in Vietnam as he returns to the site where he was injured.  This teacher shares his 
personal emotional perspective on this tumultuous historical event. 

Before Viewing
1.  Write the glossary terms on the chalkboard or over-head. Tell the students to try to 
interpret the meaning of the terms as they watch the program.  Discuss the terms after 
viewing the video.  When students are in doubt about the meaning of a term, or have found 
an unfamiliar term, assign someone to research the terms and share the information with the 
class. 

2.  Have the students divide a sheet of notebook paper into three sections.  Title the first 
section What I Think I Know About Vietnam. Title the second section What I Would Like 
to Know and the last section What I Learned. Have  them fill in the first two sections 
saving the last section for the end of the video. 

Glossary
Cold War-a state of political tension and military rivalry between nations that stops short of 
	actual full-scale war.  This situation existed between Communist Russia and its 
	allies and the United States and its allies. 
Communism-a system of government in which the state controls the means of production 
	and a single, often authoritarian party holds power with the intention of establishing 
	a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people. 
Reconnaissance Enforce-to seek out the enemy and destroy. 
Viet Cong-troops from Communist North Vietnam and Communist rebels in South 
	Vietnam who fought against the South Vietnam government and the United States 
	troops. 

Focus Question
To give students a specific purpose for viewing, ask: Why did the United States get 
involved in the Vietnam War?

Questions For Discussion

1.  Discuss why the United States thought the Southeast Asia country of Vietnam was 
worth fighting for.

2.  Why did the United States military stop short of a victory?

3.  Discuss some of the major events that led up to the withdrawal of United States troops 
from Vietnam. 

4.  What were some of the major challenges the troops faced in fighting in Vietnam? 

5.  How did the Tet Offensive change the outcome of the war?

6.  In your opinion do you think the teacher was right in going back to Vietnam to relive the 
past? Explain. 

7.  What do you think might have happened if President Truman had taken a more active 
role in Vietnam? Why was he not very active in what was happening there at the time? 
Explain. 

Interdisciplinary Connections

Language Arts/Social Studies
1.  Have students invite a Vietnam veteran from the community or from their own family to 
discuss his/her experiences and feelings about the war.  Try to invite a person who was 
part of the anti-war movement to discuss his/her experiences and feelings during this 
period. (Listening/Critical Analysis)  

2.  With the use of an audio recorder or camcorder have students interview members of the 
faculty, family members,  and community members who were at least twenty years of age 
during the Vietnam War.  Have them record how that person felt about the war and the 
United States involvement in Vietnam.   (Research/Interpretation/Analysis/Listening)    

3.  Prepare a class documentary on Vietnam by having a student or group of students video 
the oral reports and visual material done on the subject by classmates.  Upon completion of 
the documentary invite other classes in to view it. Have a panel of students ready to answer 
any questions brought up by the visiting class.    
(Speaking/Interpretation/Creativity/Cooperation)   

4.  Assign small groups of students to research and debate the following: (the class should 
decide which team was the most convincing in their debate.) 
(Research/Analysis/Speaking/Interpretation)   
	a. The war was fought for a noble cause-to stop the spread of Communism. 
	b. The politicians tied the hands of the military and made victory impossible. 
	c. The media and anti-war movement undermined the war effort. 
	d. There was never any evidence to suggest that Communism would spread and 
		threaten the free world. 
	e. The war was not winable militarily.
	f. The media and anti-war movement helped shorten the war. 
5.  The following is a list of myths and facts about the Vietnam War. Assign some students 
to research which are the myths and which are facts. 
(Research/Analysis/Speaking/Interpretation)
	a. The U.S. could have won the war by bombing the enemy back to the Stone Age. 
	b. Returning veterans were spat upon by U.S. citizens. 	
	c. Virtually all soldiers in Vietnam saw combat. 
	d. The anti-war movement shortened the war. 
	e. American soldiers fought poorly in Vietnam. 
	f. Most veterans suffer from emotional problems.   

6.  Assign a student to prepare a one or two page report on the biography of Ho Chi Minh.   
(Research/Writing/Speaking/Interpretation)

7.  Have some students prepare a time line on poster board, showing the U.S. involvement 
in Vietnam starting in 1955.  Students should make sure they include the presidents that 
were involved in the war.    (Research/Writing/Speaking/Analysis)

8.  Assign a student to prepare a one or two page report on Dien Bien Phu and the role of 
the French in Vietnam.     (Research/Writing/Speaking/Interpretation)

Art
1.  Have students work with the art department to prepare a large poster board drawing of 
Southeast Asia as well as a reduced version that can be duplicated and given to each

Math 
1.  Assign some students to find the number of military personnel, number of military 
deaths, number of military wounded, and the number of missing in action for the WW I, 
WW II, Korean and Vietnam Wars.  Have them take these figures and graph them. On the 
back of their graph have them answer the following: What do the figures tell us.  
(Research/Graphing/Writing/Interpretation)  ch member of the class.  
(Creativity/Cooperation)  

Science
1.  Assign a group of students to do a report on Agent Orange, telling what it is, what it 
does, its make-up and the debate over it.  Information should be shared with the class.   
(Research/Analysis/Writing/Speaking/)  

After Viewing
1. Review glossary terms for reinforcement.  
2. Go over focus question and concepts. 
3. Have students write what they have learned about this topic from the video and 
	discussions. 



Events of the 20th Century Series Program 7
A Conversation with Rosa Parks 

Videotape
Teaching Guide

Video: 21 minutes
Major Concepts


Summary
Students will learn how one woman could begin a movement that would change the course 
of a nation. Rosa Parks did just that by taking a stand.  To Mrs. Parks, December 1, 1955 
was just like any other day-until she refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white 
passenger.  This action started a chain of events that would initiate a bus boycott and 
eventually end segregation on public transportation.   In the midst of it all, Martin Luther 
King established his position on the fight for the equal rights of African Americans. 
Through an intimate conversation with Rosa Parks students will learn the importance of 
knowing their own heritage and standing up for what they believe in. 

Before Viewing
1.  List the glossary terms on the chalkboard or overhead. Tell the students to try to 
interpret the meaning of the terms as they watch the program.  Discuss the terms after 
viewing the video.  When students are in doubt of the meaning of a term, or have found an 
unfamiliar term, assign a student to research the term and then have the student share the 
information with the class. ( Note: not all the glossary terms are in the video program but 
are essential to the understanding of the subject treated in the video.)

Focus Question
To give students a specific purpose for viewing, ask: Why was Rosa Parks' act important 
to the Civil Rights Movement?

Glossary
Catalyst-one that precipitates a process or event, especially without being involved in or 
	changed by the consequences. 
Civil Disobedience-the refusal to obey a law a person thinks is wrong. 
Civil Rights-rights belonging to a person by virtue of his/her status as a citizen. 
Defiance-bold resistance to an opposing force or authority. 
Desegregation-to promote having people of different races live in separate neighborhoods, 
	and to end racial discrimination in employment. 
Integration-to open to people of all races or ethnic groups without restriction. 
Institutionalize-to make into, treat as, or give the character of an institution. 
Non-violent-the doctrine, policy, or practice of rejecting violence in favor of peaceful 
	tactics, as a means of gaining political objectives. 
Principle-moral or ethical standards or judgments collectively. 
Segregate-to separate or isolate from others or from a main body or group. 

Questions For Discussion


1.  Discuss what historically important action Rosa Parks took on December 1, 1955. 

2.  Discuss the court proceedings of December 5, 1955.

3.  What was the importance of the incident at the Hope Street Baptist Church?

4.  What do you think would have happened to the Civil Rights Movement if Rosa Parks 
had not refused to give up her seat? 

5.  What was the position of the Supreme Court on the bus segregation law in the South? 
Do you think their decision had any impact on the Civil Rights Movement? Explain. 

6.  What reasons does Rosa Parks give for what she considers a slow down in the Civil 
Rights Movemet today? Do you agree with her? Why or why not. 

7.  What reason does Rosa Parks give in stating that the African-American in the 1950's 
were more active (in the Civil Rights Movement) than they are today?

8.  What role, if any, do you believe Martin Luther King, Jr. played in Rosa Parks' action 
in desegregating the bus.  

Interdisciplinary Connections

Language Arts/Social Studies
1.  Assign a student or a group of students to write a one or two page paper on the 
biography of Rosa Parks and her importance in American history and the Civil Rights 
Movement.  (Research/Writing/Speaking)  

2.  Assign a student or group of students to write a short paper on the following 
organizations and their relationship to the Civil Rights Movement:  
(Research/Writing/Speaking/Interpretation)   
	a. CORE
	b. NAACP
	c. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (S.C.L.C.)
	d. Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee  (SNCC)
	
3.  Write a short biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Include his philosophy of non-
violence and the reason he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.  
(Research/Writing/Speaking/Interpretation)

4.  Have students discuss the importance of the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, 
Kansas. (Research/Writing/Speaking/Analysis)

5.  Write a short summary of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and 1964 and their significance 
to the Civil Rights Movement.   (Research/Writing/Speaking/Analysis)

6.  Write a brief analysis about the meaning of the Plessy rule and the effect Lloyd Gaines 
and H. Marion Sweatt had on this rule.    (Research/Writing/Speaking/Analysis)

7.  Write a short analysis of the role President Harry S. Truman played in the Civil Rights 
Movement.    (Research/Writing/Interpretation/Analysis)

8.  Select students to hold a debate on each of the following:      
(Research/Writing/Speaking/Critical Analysis)
	a.  The best way to promote civil rights is to follow the idea of non-violence. 
	b.  If we allow civil disobedience against one law, just or unjust, then people will 
			disobey all laws. 
	c.  The government should not punish people who disobey laws if they can give a 
			good reason for doing so.   

9.   Assign a student or students to research and write or give an oral report on what was 
	meant by Jim Crow "laws".    (Research/Writing/Speaking/Analysis)

10.  On the last page of this guide you will find a sheet that lists various events of the Civil 
	Rights Movement.  You may wish to duplicate this page and use it as classroom 
	discussion or resource assignments.    (Recall/Interpretation)

After Viewing

1. Review glossary terms for reinforcement.  
2. Go over focus questions and concepts. 
3. Have each student relate one new thing they learned from this program. 

Dateline
Listed below are a list of events that are related to the Civil Rights Movement.  Place the 
letters representing the events next to the year the event took place. 
1947
1955
1957
1960
1962
1963
1964
1965
A. Voting Rights Act				
C. 30+ cases brought to court on voting rights of blacks
E. "I Have A Dream" speech given
G. Civil Rights Act (Pres. Eisenhower)
I. March on Birmingham
K. Mississippi Summer Project
M. Wade-in, read-in, walk-in
B. March on Washington
D. Jackie Robinson integrated baseball
F. Bus boycott of Montgomery
H. Rosa Park's bus incident
J. Greensboro sit-in
L. Civil Rights Act (Pres. Johnson)

Events of the 20th Century Series Program 8
Return to Auschwitz

Videotape  Teaching Guide
Video: 15 minutes 

Major Concepts


Summary
This program will take the viewer on a tour of Auschwitz, the most notorious Nazi "death 
camp" of World War II.  The viewer will go back in time, by way of archival footage, as 
several survivors who have returned to Auschwitz after a half-century, tell their horror 
stories of their forced incarceration in Auschwitz and the hardships they had to endure.  
Viewers will also hear from descendants of Auschwitz survivors expressing their personal 
thoughts and feelings as to why the Holocaust must never be forgotten or allowed to 
happen again. 

Before Viewing
1.  List the glossary terms on the chalkboard or overhead. Tell the students to try to 
interpret the meaning of the terms as they watch the program.  Discuss the terms after 
viewing the video.  When students are in doubt about the meaning of a term, assign a 
student to research the term and then share the information with the class. (Note: not all the 
glossary terms are in the video program but are essential to the understanding of the subject 
treated in the video.)

2.  Introduce the title of the video to the students and ask what they think the program will 
deal with.  Also ask them if they can name other Nazi extermination camps.  List these on 
the board or overhead and have students enter them into their social studies journals.  After 
viewing the program assign some students to research the difference between a 
concentration camp and extermination camp.  (Extermination camps: Auschwitz, Treblinka, 
Sobibor, Maidanek, Chelmno, and Belzec)

Glossary
Anti-Semite - a person who is hostile toward or prejudiced against Jews.  The term was 
	first used by Wihelm Marr, a German racist, in 1878. 
Aryan - of or pertaining to a presumed ethnic type exemplified by or descended from early 
	speakers of Indo-European languages.  In Nazi ideology, a Caucasian gentile, 
	especially of Nordic type with blonde hair and blue eyes. 
Auschwitz - the name of a town in southwestern Poland that was given to a group of huge 
	slave-labor and extermination camps located there.  Between 1.5 million and 3.5 
	million Jews were murdered there, as well as hundreds of thousands of non-Jews.  
	The term has come to be synonymous with the Holocaust. 
Crematorium - a place to burn bodies to ashes. 
"Final Solution" - a code word used by the Nazis to mean the physical extermination of all 
	the Jews in Europe. 
Holocaust - a massive slaughter, especially the genocide of European Jews by the Nazis 
	during World War II.
Inhumane - lacking in pity or compassion.
Juden - the German word for Jew. 
Pogrom - an organized and often officially encouraged massacre or persecution of a 
	minority group, especially one conducted against the Jews in Russia. 
Racism - the notion that one's own ethnic stock is superior. 

Focus Question
To give students a specific purpose for viewing, ask:  Why do you think the Auschwitz 
survivors returned 50 years after their release? 

Questions For Discussion

1. Why do you think the Nazis had the saying "Arbeit Macht Frei" above the entry gates of 
Auschwitz?  What does it mean?

2. Where was Auschwitz located and why do you think it was located there?

3. What did the Nazis do with most of the prisoners of Auschwitz as the Russian troops 
got closer to the camp?  Why do you think they did this? 

4. Why do you think some of the survivors brought their young descendants with them to 
Auschwitz? Would you like to visit this site? Why or why not? 

5. Why do you think the Polish government did not destroy Auschwitz after the war? 

6. What is the importance of the monument that the narrator showed the viewers? 

7. What do you think that Gilanna Alpert meant when she said, "It's like we're one again?"

8. What technology was used in carrying out the extermination of the Jews in Auschwitz? 

9. Determine the population of the community you live in and then determine how many 
times that population would have to be exterminated in order to reach the 6,000,000 Jews 
exterminated by the Nazis. 

10. Discuss how you felt after watching the video program. 

Interdisciplinary Connections
Language Arts/Social Studies
1.  Assign some students to write to the Holocaust Museum in Washington, D.C. asking 
for any complimentary materials on the Holocaust. Set up a section of the room to display 
any material they may receive, or any other materials the students bring in from magazines, 
newspapers, or any other source.  You may also have them write to the Holocaust 
Memorial Foundation of Illinois.    (Writing/Organization)  

Holocaust Memorial Foundation of Illinois
4255 West Main St. Skokie, IL 60076-2063
(847) 677-4640

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW
Washington, DC 20024-2150
(202) 488-0400

2.  Assign some students to write a one or two page biography on the following:   
(Writing/Organization)
Adolph Hitler	Raoul Wallenberg	
Elie Wiesel	Simon Wiesenthal	Heinrich Himmler	Joseph Mengeles 

3.  Assign a group of students to read some of the following books and give a critique to 
the class: 
Hitler's War Against the Jews, Altshuyler, David A. and Dawidowicz, Lucy S. Behrman House
Never to Forget: The Jews of the Holocaust   Meltzer, Milton - New York: Dell 1977
Anti-Semitism: The Road to the Holocaust and Beyond  Patterson, Charles - Walker.  
(Research/Writing/Reading/Speaking)

4.  Assign the book, The Holocaust Museum in Washington, Rizzoli International 
Publications, Inc. 1995 as class reading.  Have students discuss their reactions to this 
material. (Reading/Interpretation/Speaking)

5.  Assign a group of students to give a report on the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.  
(Research/Writing/Interpretation/Speaking)

6.  Assign a student or group of students to report on the Nuremberg Laws and their effect 
on the lives of the German Jews.   (Research/Reading/Writing/Interpretation/Speaking)	

7.  Have small groups of students work together, select an event or term dealing with the 
Holocaust (i.e. Babi Yar, Krystalnacht, SS).  Have each group research their subject and 
prepare a display to aid their oral report.  You may choose to display their material in a 
manner similar to a Social Studies Fair and invite other classes to view the work.  Their 
project should be judged on the following basis: written report, visual display board, 
creativity, and presentation.   (Research/Creativity/Interpretation/Reading/Cooperation)	

8.  Assign a student to use the school camcorder to make a documentary of the reports 
given by the students during the study of the Holocaust.  The finished product can be 
shared with other classes.  
(Research/Creativity/Interpretation/Reading/Cooperation)

9.  If possible, have the class view the film "Schlindler's List." Parent permission should 
be secured prior to student viewing. 
Discuss its impact with the class.  
(Research/Creativity/Interpretation/Reading/Cooperation)

10.  Reproduce the last page so each student can have a copy.  They are to put the 
appropriate dates by the statements.  This assignment may be done in class or as 
homework.   
(Research)
Answers: 41, 43, 42, 33, 34, 39, 41, 43, 35, 39, 38, 41, 45, 38, 33

After Viewing

1. Review glossary terms for reinforcement.  
2. Go over focus question.
3. Ask students to tell one important thing they have learned from this program.

Time Line

Match the correct date to the historical event.  You may use a date more than once. 
1. Wearing the Jewish star is decreed in the Baltic states occupied by Germany. ___________
2. Warsaw Ghetto uprising. ___________
3. Wannsee Conference on "Final Solution" held.  ___________
4.  Nazi proclaim a general boycott of all Jewish-owned businesses.  ___________
5.  Nuremberg Laws passed.  ___________
6.  Wearing of the Jewish star is made compulsory throughout Occupied Poland.  ___________
7.  First experiments with gassing are made at Auschwitz. ___________
8.  Himmler orders liquidation of all Polish Jewish Ghettos.  ___________
9.  "No Jews" signs increase in numbers outside towns, villages, restaurants, and stores.  
	___________
10.  Krystallnacht occurs.  ___________
11.  Jewish children are expelled from German Schools.  ___________
12.  Heydrich is appointed by Goering to carry out "Final Solution."  ___________
13.  Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal commences.   ___________
14.  Compulsory appropriation of Jewish industries, businesses, and shops.   ___________
15.  Hitler becomes Reich Chancellor.   ___________
A. 1933	B. 1934
C. 1935	D. 1938
E. 1939	F. 1941
G. 1942	H. 1943	
I. 1945		


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