Kentucky Academic Correlations
The following Kentucky Core Content and Academic Expectations can be addressed through aviation studies in general.
Fayette County teacher David Helm has also created a chart of Kentucky academic connections for Science in Flight, a multi-unit lesson plan available online from the U.S. Air Force.
Science | Vocational Studies | Social Studies
Position and Motion of Objects
An objects motion can be described by measuring its change in position over time, such as rolling different objects (e.g., spheres, toy cars) down a ramp.
he position and motion of objects can be changed by pushing or pulling. The amount of change in position and motion is related to the strength of the push or pull (force). The force with which a ball is hit illustrates this principle.
Vibration is a type of motion. Sound is produced by vibrating objects. The pitch of the sound can be varied by changing the rate of vibration.
Motions and Forces
The motion of an object can be described by its relative position, direction of motion, and speed. That motion can be measured and represented on a graph.
An object remains at rest or maintains a constant speed and direction of motion unless an unbalanced force acts on it.
When an unbalanced force acts on an object, the change in speed and/or direction depends on the size and direction of the force.
Structure of the Earth System: Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere
Earth is surrounded by a relatively thin blanket of air called the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases that include water vapor. The atmosphere has different properties at different elevations.
Motions and Forces
Objects change their motion only when a net force is applied. Laws of motion are used to describe the effects of forces on the motion of objects.
Gravity is a universal force that each mass exerts on every other mass.
The electric force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects. Opposite charges attract while like charges repel.
Electricity and magnetism are two aspects of a single electromagnetic force. Moving electric charges produce magnetic forces, and moving magnets produce electric forces. This idea underlies the operation of electric motors and generators.
Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder
The total energy of the universe is constant. Energy can be transferred in many ways, but it can neither be created nor destroyed.
All energy can be considered to be either kinetic energy, potential energy, or energy contained by a field (e.g., electric, magnetic, gravitational).
Heat is the manifestation of the random motion and vibrations of atoms, molecules, and ions. The greater the atomic or molecular motion, the higher the temperature.
The universe becomes less orderly and less organized over time. Thus, the overall effect is that the energy is spread out uniformly. For example, in the operation of mechanical systems, the useful energy output is always less than the energy input; the difference appears as heat.
- 2.2: Students identify, analyze, and use patterns such as cycles and trends to understand past and present events and predict possible future events.
- 2.3: Students identify and analyze systems and the ways their components work together or affect each other.
- 2.4: Students use the concept of scale and scientific models to explain the organization and functioning of living and nonliving things and predict other characteristics that might be observed.
- 2.6: Students understand how living and nonliving things change over time and the factors that influence the changes.
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Special skills are needed for success in future schooling and in the workplace.
Academic skills (e.g., science, physical education, math, health, reading, writing, social studies, art, music) that relate to various jobs and careers are needed for future success.
Technology (e.g., computer programs, Internet, e-mail, cellular phones, ATM, VCR) is used in many homes, schools, jobs, and careers.
Many tasks can be completed more efficiently when team skills (e.g., cooperation, communication) are used.
Certain academic skills (e.g., communication, research, math, science) are important to specific jobs or careers.
The use of various types of technology (e.g., word processing, Internet access) has increased, continues to change, and has an impact on the workplace.
Both individual and team skills (e.g., identify goals, use listening skills, follow directions, communicate orally, ask questions about tasks, use problem-solving skills) contribute to the successful completion of a task.
Life-long earning potential, job options, and job satisfaction are generally related to the amount and kind of educational training of the worker.
Changes in technology impact what employees do in various jobs and careers (e.g., ATM on bank tellers, voice mail on receptionists, scanners on cashiers, on-line courses on teachers).
Team skills (e.g., identify goals, use listening skills, follow directions, communicate orally, cooperate with others, ask questions about tasks, use problem-solving skills, use conflict resolution and mediation skills) are important in future schooling and in todays workplace.
- 2.36: Students use strategies for choosing and preparing for a career.
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Patterns on Earths surface can be identified by examining where things are, how they are arranged, and why they are in particular locations.
Simple physical, political, and thematic maps, globes, charts, photographs, aerial photography, and graphs can be used to find and explain locations and display information.
Every point on Earth has an absolute location defined by latitude and longitude and a relative location as compared to other points on Earths surface.
Mental maps are used to demonstrate where things are and how they are arranged.
After looking at spatial factors, decisions (e.g., where to locate a store, house, playground, or equipment on a playground) are made about where to locate human activities on Earths surface.
Different factors in one location can have an impact on another location (e.g., natural disasters, damming a river).
Maps (e.g., map projectionsMercator and Robinson), globes, photographs, models, and satellite images are representations of Earth with different characteristics and uses.
Different factors (e.g., rivers, dams, developments) affect where human activities are located and how land is used in urban, rural, and suburban areas.
Representations of Earth and databases can be used to analyze the distribution of physical and human features on Earths surface.
Mental maps, the mental image a person has of an area including knowledge of features and spatial relationships, become more complex as experience, study, and the media bring new geographic information.
The location and distribution of human features on Earths surface are based on reasoning and patterns (e.g., available transportation, location of resources and markets, individual preference, centralization versus dispersion).
The history of the United States is a chronicle of a diverse people and the nation they formed.
The way we live has changed over time for both Kentuckians and Americans because of changes in many areas (e.g., communication, innovations/inventions, homes, transportation, recreation, traditions, education).
The study of U.S. history is categorized into broad historical periods and eras (Land and People before Columbus, Age of Exploration, Colonization, War for Independence, the Young Republic, Westward Expansion, Industrialism, the Twentieth Century).
Symbols (e.g., state and national flags), slogans, monuments/buildings, patriotic songs, poems (e.g., the Pledge of Allegiance), and selected readings (e.g., Gettysburg Address) are used to describe or illustrate important ideas and events in Kentucky and American history.
The rise of big business, factories, mechanized farming, and the labor movement transformed the lives of Americans.
The second half of the 20th century was characterized by rapid social, political, and economic changes that created new challenges (e.g., population growth, diminishing natural resources, human rights issues, technological and scientific advances, shifting political alliances, globalization of the economy).
- 2.20: Students understand, analyze, and interpret historical events, conditions, trends, and issues to develop historical perspective.
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