Underground Railroad KET Links KET Home Page
Underground Railroad Home Page Running Man
Teacher Resources Community Research Special Thanks
History of Slavery Time Line Behind the Scenes
Video/Audio Segments


Underground Home
My Old Kentucky Home Lyrics
Question of Slavery
Abolitionist Thought
KY. and the Underground Railroad
Glossary

A Condensed History of Slavery

GLOSSARY





Article Nine (1792 Kentucky Constitution)
The Legislature shall have no power to pass laws for the emancipation of slaves without the consent of their owners, or without paying their owners, previous to such emancipation, a full equivalent in money for the slaves so emancipated; they shall have no power to prevent emigrants to this State from bringing with them such persons as are deemed slaves by the laws of any one of the United States, so long as any person of the same age or description shall be continued in slavery by the laws of this State; that they shall pass laws to permit the owners of slaves to emancipate them, saving the rights of creditors, and preventing them from becoming a charge to the county in which they reside; they shall have full power to prevent slaves being brought into this State as merchandise; they shall have full power to prevent any slave being brought into this State from a foreign country, and to prevent those from being brought into this State who have been, since the first day of January, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine, or may hereafter be, imported into any of the United States from a foreign country. And they shall have full power to pass such laws as may be necessary, to oblige the owners of slaves to treat them with humanity, to provide for them necessary clothing and provisions, to abstain from all injuries to them extending to life or limb; and in case of their neglect or refusal to comply with the directions of such laws, to have such slave or slaves sold for the benefit of their owner or owners.

John Gregg Fee and Berea College
Berea College was first established by noted Kentucky abolitionist, John G. Fee with funds and lands received from abolitionist Cassius M. Clay. Berea opened as the first college in America founded for the specific purpose of educating Black and white students together. Other colleges had admitted Black students in the nineteenth century Cheyney State College and Lincoln University in Pennsylvania and Wilberforce University in Ohio, for example, were established as Black colleges or as colleges that would admit Black students. Berea, however; was founded for the purpose of integrating the races for classroom instruction and work experiences, and it opened in a state that had accepted slavery. The school had its origins in 1855 when Reverend John Fee, a white abolitionist, opened a small elementary school in a church. He named the location - "Berea" after a biblical town in which people were tolerant and open minded. Reverend Fee had written a pamphlet entitled the Antislavery Manual.

Cassius Clay read the manual and was so impressed that he urged Fee to spread his abolitionist views among the people of western Kentucky as these views became widely known, proslavery forces began to see the church and school as hated symbols. In spite of threats, Fee and his associate, J. A. R. Rogers, struggled to keep the school alive. Shortly after the constitution for Berea was written, abolitionist John Brown and his followers raided the arsenal at Harpers Ferry West Virginia, in October 1859. Their intent was to free the slaves and establish a stronghold in the mountains. The raid increased the slaveholders' fear and angel; and reprisals swept the South. In December 1859 sixty five armed men rode into Berea and ordered Fee and Rogers to leave Kentucky within ten days. Since the state governor refused to provide protection, the men had no choice but to flee. In spite of this hostility by 1867 the school reopened; ninety six Black and ninety one white students were attending elementary classes at Berea.

The school remained an irritant until the turn of the century when the southern and border states enacted Jim Crow laws. Kentucky's segregationists turned to the state legislature in 1904, pressuring legislators to pass the Day Law This new legislation, which specified that Black and white students could not be taught on the same campus, was specifically aimed at Berea. The college fought the law for four years, but in 1908 the Supreme Court, in Berea College v. Commonwealth of Kentucky ruled that the state could require a private institution to segregate students of different races.

Bitterly disappointed, African American students had to leave the campus, and Berea remained segregated until 1940, when the state of Kentucky removed the ban. During the period of segregation, Berea used its funds to establish an all Black school in Simpsonville, Kentucky (see Lincoln Institute site). Of the forty four buildings on campus, Lincoln Hall is the last surviving structure from the old college. The three story brick building, constructed in 1878, was named after President Abraham Lincoln. The structure originally contained classrooms, a library a museum, meeting rooms, and laboratories, but it is used today for administrative offices and activities. Although the interior has been altered, the exterior remains as it originally appeared. Lincoln Hall is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
College, Chestnut Street; Welcome Center, 201 N. Broadway, Berea, KY (859) 986-9341

Cassius Marcellus Clay and White Hall State Historic Site
This forty four room, three story mansion was the home of Cassius Marcellus Clay, an outspoken and idiosyncratic white abolitionist. The site also contains slave quarters of stone located near the main house.

Cassius Clay was the son of General Green Clay one of the richest men in Kentucky. At the time of his death in 1828, General Clay owned more land, slaves, and personal property than anyone else in the state. When his sixth child, Cassius Marcellus Clay was born in 1810, slavery was a well accepted institution in Kentucky. Cassius grew up in a world of wealth and privilege.

Two incidents caused Cassius to turn against slavery. The first occurred when he was approximately eight years old. A slave named Mary, who had been Clay's companion and playmate, was punished by Green Clay for a minor misdeed. She was transferred from her position in the Clay household and sent to work for the family of the overseer on another of Green Clay's estates. Years later these feelings were reinforced when he heard his first antislavery speech while a student at Yale. White abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison gave a lecture that impelled Clay to speak out against slavery. Clay asked that his name be removed from the church roll because he disagreed with the members' views on slavery. When he graduated from Yale, Clay was selected to deliver the Washington Centennial Address. He made his first antislavery speech at that time. After graduation, Cassius freed approximately fifty of his own slaves at great financial cost. In 1845 he began publishing an antislavery paper The True American, in Lexington. Within a month he received death threats and had to arm himself and barricade the doors of his newspaper office for protection. On an occasion when he was ill, a mob of about sixty men broke into his office, dismantled the press and equipment, and shipped them to Cincinnati. Clay continued to publish the paper from Ohio, circulating it throughout Kentucky.

Cassius Clay also helped to found Berea College, one of the first colleges in the United States established for the purpose of educating an integrated student body. This activity drew more hatred and enmity from Kentucky's proslavery forces. Clay's last years were saddened. Divorced from his wife and deeply in debt, he sold much of his property. Ironically, in spite of his antislavery views, he still owned some slaves, whom he now sold to pay his creditors. He lived almost alone in his large house, armed for his own protection. Clay died on July 22, 1903, at the age of ninety three. Sixty five years after his death, White Hall stood empty and in ruin. The fine furnishings were sold at auction for a little more than $3,000. Walls and floors buckled, and vandals destroyed parts of the house. Tenant farmers who lived in sections of the house stored grain and hay in the elegant ballroom. In 1968 the Commonwealth of Kentucky bought White Hall and thirteen acres of land from the Clay heirs for $18,375 and began to restore the main house. The old Stone slave quarters behind White Hall were built in the early 1800s. Slaves also lived in the basement of the main house, where bars remain across a window in one room. In another room a tunnel still exists where slaves owned by General Green Clay tried to dig their way to freedom by tunneling under ground. Apparently the escape plot was discovered.

Henry Clay
Born in Hanover County, Virginia., April 12, 1777 died in Washington, DC, 29 June 1852. Considered a statesman, Clay studied law in Richmond, was admitted to the bar in 1797. He practiced law in Lexington, Kentucky and became a Kentucky legislator from 1803-06, and filled an unexpired term in the U.S. Senate from 1806-07. Clay became speaker of the state legislature (1807-09), and filled another unexpired term in the Senate (1809-10). While congressman (1811-21, 1823-25), he was Speaker of the House (1811-20 and 1823-25) and was a leader of the "war hawks," and a commissioner to negotiate peace with Great Britain (1814). Clay urged recognition of South American republics by the United States in 1817 and was influential in framing the Missouri Compromise in 1820. As a candidate for president in 1824, he was fourth in the number of electoral votes. After losing his presidential bid, Clay threw his support to John Quincy Adams, and became Adams Secretary of State from 1825-29. As a Senator from Kentucky from 1831-42 and 1849-52, Clay became the Whig candidate for president in 1832, but was defeated by Andrew Jackson largely because of his support of the Second Bank of the United States. His "American System" was based upon tariff protection and federal aid for internal improvements. He sponsored the compromise Tariff of 1833, failed to secure the Whig nomination in 1840, and ran in 1844, he is considered to have lost this race because of his noncommittal stand on Texas. His sponsorship of the Compromise of 1850 earned him the title "The Great Pacificator."

Elisha Green
(Life of Rev. Elisha W. Green, Autobiography, The Republican Printing Office, 1888) was born a slave in Bourbon County, Kentucky, near Paris "six miles to the right of that place, on the Georgetown turnpike". Green lived there until the age of ten, at which time Elisha, his parents, brothers and sisters were divided as heir property and Elisha came to live in Mayslick, Mason County, Kentucky. Elisha, his sister and four other children were sold in Washington at a sheriff's sale. Elisha was purchased by a Mr. Charlie Ward. Elisha eventually became the property of a Miss Dobbyns in Maysville. Elisha became a Baptist preacher through the sponsorship of several members of the African Colonization Society. In his autobiography, Green reports having met the "president of the Underground Railroad, Mr. Cabin" (Coffin?). While in slavery, Elisha became a Baptist minister and traveled freely in northern Kentucky and Ohio. He purchased his freedom, and constructed a black church in Maysville. The original church structure did burn in the 1970's, and a new building has been erected in a different location. The church still maintains a very active congregation in Maysville today.

(Information on Josiah Henson, Old Washington, Songs of the Underground Railroad are taken for the work of James Blockson, The Underground Railroad, 1994.)

Owensboro, Kentucky Josiah Henson Trail
The fictional character of Uncle Tom in Uncle Tom's Cabin was based partially on the real life career of an escaped slave named Josiah Henson. Henson had been a Maryland slave whose owner, Isaac Riley, transported him to Riley's brother Amos' plantation in Owensboro, Kentucky. Henson was about 36 years old when he arrived in Kentucky with his family. He became a model slave and served as overseer of the plantation.

However, late in 1830 he gathered his family together and with them escaped to freedom, going first to Indiana, and from there to Canada via the Underground Railroad. He later told his life story to Harriet Beecher Stowe and wrote an autobiography entitled Father Henson's Story. Stowe wrote the introduction to the second edition of his book, which was published under the title Truth Stranger Than Fiction: Father Henson's Story of His Own Life. The former site of the Riley plantation is designated by a historical marker on U.S. 60 near the village of Maceo, just west of the Davis County line. No evidence of the former plantation remains.

Liberty
Party formed. The entry of the antislavery forces into politics was signaled by the establishment of the Liberty party, which held its founding convention at Warsaw, NY in 1839 and nominated James G. Birney, a native of Kentucky and a former slaveholder, for president, and Thomas Earle (Pa.) for vice president. These nominations were confirmed at the party's first national convention at Albany (1 Apr. 1840).

Liberty party conventions were subsequently held in Ohio and other states in the Northwest. The party was composed of moderate abolitionists who did not share William Lloyd Garrison's opposition to political action. Unlike Garrison, they professed loyalty to the Constitution and did not advocate secession or dissolution of the Union. By virtue of holding the balance of power, the party played an important part in the presidential election of 1844, and was considered responsible for the defeat of Henry Clay.

In 1848 it combined with the Free-Soil party and helped to defeat the Democratic candidate, Lewis Cass. The party's chief political issue was its stand against the annexation of Texas. Among its leaders were Gerrit Smith (NY) and Salmon P. Chase (OH).

Abraham Lincoln
Was born in Hardin County, Ky., 12 Feb. 1809 and died in Washington, D.C., 15 Apr. 1865. He was the sixteenth president of the United States and moved with his parents (Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln) to Spencer County, Indiana in 1816. The family then settled in southern Illinois in 1830, where he clerked in a store at New Salem. He became captain of volunteers in the Black Hawk War (1832), but did not see action. He operated a store, practiced surveying, and served as postmaster at New Salem from 1833 to 1836 while he studied law and was admitted to the bar (1836). He moved to Springfield, Illinois in 1837, where he opened a law office and quickly obtained a reputation on the circuit as an outstanding jury lawyer. He became a Whig state legislator from 1834 to 1842 and was elected to Congress in 1846, but did not stand for reelection. In his Peoria speech (1854) he denounced the Kansas Nebraska Act.

Joining the Republican party in 1856, he ran for the Senate against Stephen A. Douglas (1858), accepting the nomination on June 17 with a speech in which he declared: "A house divided against itself cannot stand." In the course of seven campaign debates with Douglas he forced the latter to announce the so called Freeport Doctrine. Even though he lost the election, Lincoln had established himself as a national figure. He won the Republican nomination for the presidency in 1860 because of his conservative views on slavery. His election was regarded by the South as forecasting an attack on their "peculiar institution." By March 4, 1861, seven states had already seceded. In his first inaugural address Lincoln reiterated his constitutional doctrine that the contract between the states was binding and irrevocable.

Against the advice of his cabinet, Lincoln ordered the provisioning of Ft. Sumter and when war began called out the state militia; suspended the writ of habeas corpus; proclaimed a blockade of Southern ports; and in other ways did not hesitate to use the dictatorial powers with which he was invested. He largely countermanded Fremont's proclamation (30 Aug. 1861) emancipating the slaves of rebels in Missouri and proposed his own plan for compensated emancipation (Dec. 1861, 12 July and 1 Dec. 1862). "My paramount object is to save the Union, and not either to save or destroy slavery," he stated (22 Aug. 1862). After Antietam he prepared a draft of emancipation, proclaimed formally 1 Jan. 1863. A diplomat in the handling of both his cabinet and his generals, his re-election in 1864, when he easily defeated McClellan, was assured by the military victories of Grant, Sherman, and Sheridan. His plan of Reconstruction (8 Dec. 1863) was based on the prompt restoration of the Southern states to "their proper practical relation with the Union." He pocket-vetoed the harsher Wade-Davis Bill (8 July 1864). He personally attended the Hampton Roads Conference (3 Feb. 1865) to discuss peace terms with Confederate leaders. His most notable speeches were his Gettysburg Address (19 Nov. 1863) and his second inaugural (4 Mar. 1865), in which he appealed to the nation to "finish the work we are in... with malice toward none, with charity for all." Shortly after General Lee's surrender at Appomattox he was shot by John Wilkes Booth in Ford's Theater, Washington (14 Apr. 1865), and died the next day.

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
The second Fugitive Slave Act passed by Congress (the first was passed in 1793) levied Heavy fines for northern citizens who obstructed slaveowners in their efforts to retrieve escaped slaves. The new legislation made it profitable for federal commissioners to dispose of such cases in the slaveowner's favor. Ralph Waldo Emerson described it as a "filthy enactment" and swore he would not observe it. In response to the Fugitive Slave Act, northern states passed stronger personal liberty laws.

Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe
Born in Litchfield, Conn., 14 June 1811 and died in Hartford, Conn., 1 July 1896. Stowe was an author, daughter of abolitionist minister Lyman Beecher (1775-1863), and the sister of abolitionist Henry Ward Beecher. She was educated at Litchfield and Hartford, and moved to Cincinnati, Ohio in 1832, where she produced her first published writings and developed anti slavery sympathies. Stowe married Calvin E. Stowe (1836), a professor of Biblical literature in the Lane Theological Seminary, of which her father was president. She left Cincinnati in 1850, when her husband became professor at Bowdoin College. The agitation over the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 led her to write Uncle Tom's Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly (2 vols., 1852), originally published in serial form (5 June 1851-1 Apr. 1852) in the National Era, an anti slavery newspaper in Washington, D.C. The book sold 300,000 copies within a year, aroused deep hostility in the South, and won her an international reputation. She answered her critics in A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1853). She wrote a second antislavery novel, Dred; a Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp (1856). Her other literary works were The Minister's Wooing (1859), The Pearl of Orr's Island (1862), Oldtown Folks (1869), Sam Lawson's Oldtown Fireside Stories (1872), and Poganuc People (1878).

Missouri Compromise
In addition, the population of the North was growing at a more rapid pace (free states: 5,152,000; slave states: 4,485,000). To preserve the sectional balance, the South looked to its equal vote in the Senate. Late in 1819, the Missouri Territory embraced all of the Louisiana Purchase with the exception of the segments organized as the state of Louisiana in 1812 and the Arkansas Territory organized in 1819. The application of the Missouri Territorial Assembly (which had originally petitioned for statehood in 1817) raised the question of the legal status of slavery in Missouri and in the rest of the territory west of the Mississippi. In 1818 there were an estimated 2,000 - 3,000 slaves in the upper Louisiana country where slavery extended back to the rule of the Spanish and French. Credited with negotiating the final agreement, Henry Clay's involvement in these negotiations earned him his national reputation as the "Great Pacificator." The Missouri convention at St. Louis (12 June) incorporated in the constitution (19 July) a provision excluding free Negroes and mulattoes from the state. This clause provoked antislavery sentiment in Congress when the Missouri constitution was presented to the Senate (14 Nov.) and the House (16 Nov.).

A compromise formulated by Henry Clay resulted in the so called second Missouri Compromise (2 Mar. 1821) providing that the state of Missouri should not gain admission to the Union until the legislature gave assurance that the offending clause would never be construed as sanctioning the passage of any law abridging the privileges and immunities of United States citizens. This condition was accepted by the Missouri legislature (26 June 1821), which qualified its pledge by insisting that it had no power to bind the people of the state. On 10 Aug. 1821 President Monroe proclaimed the admission of Missouri as the 24th state.

Mount Vernon African Methodist Episcopal Church
The log church, one of the oldest African American religious structures in Kentucky is empty now except for an annual reunion. Most of the members have died or have moved away, with only one or two remaining in Gamaliel. Mount Vernon Church is associated with William Howard, a wealthy farmer and slaveowner who settled in Monroe County in 1802. Although Howard owned slaves, he did not fully approve of slavery and freed his slaves when they reached the age of twenty one. Later he gave the freed people 400 acres of land on which to build their own homes. They established the community of Free-Town several miles west of Howard's residence, living in freedom at a time when others still lived in slavery. As late as t86o, there were 922 slaves and 17 free Black people in the county.

Some of the freedmen established Mount Vernon Church. In 1848 George Pipkin, Albert Howard, and Peter West built the log structure on a slight rise, one fourth mile southwest of Free-Town and five miles north of the Kentucky-Tennessee border. The structure also served as a school. Except for the tin roof and double pane sash windows that were installed at a later date, Mount Vernon Church still has most of the original building material. The one-room, one-story structure has handhewn logs joined by wooden pegs and chinked with clay. Clapboarding covers the north and south ends. The interior has the original floor on log sleepers and rustic benches that appear to be the original ones.

A white resident recalls: They had a Maypole - it was around the time I married, in 1930 and it was such a pretty sight. They had a big dinner there in front of the church with white and Black there. They still have funerals there sometimes but most of them are done and dead and gone. Some residents of surrounding communities still have memories of activities at the log church. Ms. Edith Howard, an African American resident of Gamaliel, made the following statement: "We used to go to the church way back yonder. They had big dinners on the ground. Enjoyed it. They fixed the church up later and got it looking good."

Ruth Craig Proffitt of the Gamaliel Senior Center also has a vivid memory of the church. "I remember the Maypole. Everyone went from miles around to see it. The girls wore frilly white dresses. They held on to streamers that were red, white, and blue, I think, and they plaited them. They danced in and out, their dresses blowing in the wind, and when they finished, the pole was braided with the pretty streamers. It was the best settlement of colored people in the world. They were all straight and honest people. They had to go to Hickory Ridge for high school. Sometimes, too, they had to walk to Fountain Run, they would walk or go by in buggies. My mother would have a bucket of water for them because they would be thirsty. Nobody looked down on them, but I didn't know until I was in high school that Black people had to sit in the back of the bus and couldn't eat in the restaurant. When I asked why I was told it was just that way."

Mrs. Joyce Thomas, a school teacher in Louisville, Kentucky and a descendant of founders of Mount Vernon Church, is writing a book about her family in Monroe County and about Mount Vernon Church. Her great grandfather; Peter West, one of the builders of the church and its preacher; was a reed Methodist minister from Tennessee. Thomas said the Free Town people were: "very proud and honest, people who believed that you do what you say you will do and look out for each other. The Pipkins and Wests originally came from Tennessee, and most were teachers. My uncle, Roscoe Pipkins, and my Aunt Elmer taught school in the log church. When the school first started they chopped down trees and made desks, some of which are still there. For school supplies, they used whatever the white students had rejected.2

Mrs. Thomas leads an annual reunion to celebrate this heritage. Beginning in t982~I983, former members of the Mount Vernon Church and their families began to return to the log church for an annual reunion on the second Saturday in June. Thomas and her sister hope to open the church as a museum.

The National Underground Railroad Museum
Operated by Jerry Gore is located in Maysville, Kentucky. Mr. Gore is a direct descendent of Elisha W. Green and the enslaved African who escaped to Ohio for freedom, Addison White. The museum has rare collections of slave artifacts, books, and papers related to slavery in Kentucky.

Old Washington, Kentucky Slave Market
Although John G. Birney, president, and other members of the Kentucky Society for the Gradual Relief of the State from Slavery called for gradual emancipation, the "peculiar institution" of slavery stood firm in Old Washington. It was the second largest town in Kentucky, and it was a place where slaves were sold. An auction block may still be seen on the courthouse green. When Harriet Beecher Stowe visited Washington in 1833, she saw slaves sold on the block, and she was so stirred by the abhorrent scene that she recorded the experience in her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin.

Also in Washington is a restored building called the Paxton Inn. This building is reported to have been a station stop on the Underground Railroad when it was owned by James A. Paxton, who is said to have hidden escaped slaves in the cellar. A prominent lawyer, Paxton married twice, both times into the Marshall family and was related to Chief Justice John Marshall. Paxton later moved to Ohio because he "would not rear his family in a state that supported slavery." Old Washington is just off U. S. 68 about five miles south of Maysville. Information can be obtained from the Washington Visitor Center, (859) 759-7411.

Pleasant Green Baptist Church
Pleasant Green Baptist Church is the fourth oldest Black Baptist church in the United States and is the oldest west of the Allegheny Mountains. The church is remarkable in that its congregation has worshipped continuously at the same site since 1822. It was founded by Peter Duerett, a slave called Brother Captain. Brother Captain learned in Virginia that his wife was to be taken to Kentucky, and he petitioned his master to be allowed to go with her. A trade was arranged that allowed him to go to Kentucky as a slave of Lexington pioneer John Maxwell. Brother Captain preached in Kentucky and organized a congregation. In 1822 he and the congregation purchased the land on which the present church stands. Three trustees, all slaves, received the land deed from a white Lexington surgeon, Dr. Frederick Ridgely. A year later their pastor; Brother Captain, died.

Reverend George W (Pappy) Dupee, a slave, was the fourth minister of Pleasant Green Baptist Church. In 1826 the congregation heard that Reverend Dupee's owner was planning to sell him. Greatly troubled, they asked a white minister; Reverend William Pratt, to buy their pastor for them, and Pratt purchased Dupee off the auction block. Every Monday morning the church members made a payment on the debt to Pratt with their Sunday offerings until Dupee was freed. Dupee became a widely known and respected preacher. In 1858 he left Lexington to become pastor of Washington Street Missionary Baptist Church in Paducah, Kentucky, where he served for thirtynine years.

The Grange
The lovely elegance of the nineteenth century house called "the Grange" belies the misery experienced by Black slaves who suffered there. The house was built for slave trader Edward Stone, who chained slaves below his own living quarters while he awaited their sale. Edward Stone, his wife, and their eleven children settled on Stone's father's Revolutionary War land grant. He began to build the one and one-half-story main house in 1800 and completed it in 1816. The elegant brick main house known as "Oakland" has a deepset doorway with a fanlight and side lights and Pilladian windows in delicately curved walls. The carved, reeded woodwork throughout the interior is said to have been created with an eight foot gouge chisel operated by a talented carpenter and pulled on chains by slaves. Stone kept slaves due for sale in a 24 foot by 2 foot masonry walled cellar.

When Stone built this house, his neighbors owned slaves, too, but they did not regard slave trading as an honorable profession. He was the only person in the community to openly advertise his trade. On July 24, r8i6, for example, he placed an advertisement in the Western Citizen: "Cash for Negroes" I wish to purchase twenty negroes, boys and girls from 10 to 25 years of age. A liberal price will be given for those answering the description on early application to the subscriber, Edward Stone. Living on the Limestone Road, 4 miles from Paris leading to Millersburg.4

In 1882 a Reverend James H. Dickey met one of Stone's coffles (that is, a group of slaves chained together) on the Paris Lexington Road. Forty men and thirty women were in the coffle, and Reverend Dickey described them as marching with sad countenances. Owners often sold Stone their unruly slaves or those who had committed crimes. To break their spirits, Stone chained them to rings set in the walls of the dungeon and left them in complete darkness. They were fed nothing but bread and water, and their only breath of fresh air came from one iron barred window under the back porch. This window was approached by a 4 foot by 400 ft doorway raised two feet off the ground and guarded with a solid iron door.

By 1826, Stone had developed a lucrative business, but the community still rejected him because of his slave trading practices, Stone finally announced that he would give up slave trading and become a planter. He planned a final trip to New Orleans with a cargo of seventy seven surplus slaves and loaded his human cargo on a flat bottomed boat. Ignoring a servant's warning that a rebellion might take place, he began a fateful trip down the Ohio River Approximately ninety miles below Louisville, the slaves overwhelmed Stone and other white men on board, killing them and throwing their bodies into the river. The servant who had given the warning fought to save Stone, but when he could not, he escaped and eventually returned home. The slaves who had rebelled were determined to be free, but were eventually captured. Their mutiny was unsuccessful in freeing them, but it left no doubt in the minds of Kentucky citizens of the strength of the impulse toward freedom. The fate of Stone's rebellious slaves is not known; as a rule, such slaves were either executed or very harshly punished. The Grange today is a private home, and its interior is not accessible to visitors. There is a one story brick cabin on the site that once was used as slave quarters, and the slave holding cellar is still there. Despite the fact that the house is not open to visitors, it is worth while to drive by because of its tragic history.

ABOLITION - A belief in the immediate end of slavery. Abolition grew from religious beliefs developed during the evangelical movement.

BENEFIT OF CLERGY- A one time exemption from a mandatory death sentence for a man slaughter conviction. Like England, Virginia limited benefit of clergy to white men who could read. If the judge granted the motion for benefit of clergy, the accused went free, but not before a court official burned a mark into the offender's hand with a hot iron.

CAMP MEEING - a religious meeting which lasted for several days, even weeks, where the religious faithful would bring tents and "camp out" during revivals. Camp meetings were characterized by music, speeches, vendors and a lively atmosphere.

CHATTEL - A moveable item of personal property. In eighteenth century Virginia, slaves were considered to be chattel property.

COMMON LAW - Laws or court decisions based on a long history of custom or tradition, rather than specifically enacted statutes.

ENSLAVED - When someone is forced by law and custom to be a slave.

"FANCY GIRLS" - a name given to women of African and European descent who were often fair skinned enough to be considered white. In many instances these women were well educated and from privileged backgrounds.

INDENTURED SERVANT - A person who is legally bound to work for another person for a predetermined period of time. In the eighteenth century this period of time was often, but not always, seven years.

MANUMISSION - The act of releasing an individual from slavery, usually by the slave owner.

MIDDLE PASSAGE - The Atlantic crossing during which enslaved Africans endured inhumanely cramped unsanitary conditions.

MULATTO - An eighteenth century term describing an individual who has both African and European ancestry.

NEGRO - A term used in the eighteenth century to describe a person of African descent.

PLANTATION - Any farm that produces a crop for sale.

SLAVE CODES - Laws concerning the enforcement of racial slavery.



Underground Railroad Main Links
  |   Underground Home  |   Teacher Resources  |   History of Slavery  |   Community Research  |  

  |   Time Line  |   Special Thanks  |   Behind the Scenes  |  

  |   Tape Order Info  |   Search this site  |  

Last Updated: Tuesday, 09-May-2006 10:39:16 EDT