Skip to Main Content

Vaccinations: Who, What, When, and Why?

Vaccinations: Who, What, When, and Why?

Dr. Tuckson speaks with Dr. Lori Caloia, medical director of Louisville Metro Public Health and Wellness.
S14 E21 Length 26:33 Premiere: 4.14.19

Vaccinations: Who, What, When, and Why?

Vaccinations are a cornerstone of public health care in the U.S., protecting large populations from infectious and bacterial diseases through wide-scale, pre-emptive campaigns that are based on extensive research and planning. However, in recent years opposition has formed against vaccinations in certain circles, questioning their effectiveness in preventing disease as well as asserting possible unintended consequences.

On this episode of Kentucky Health, host Dr. Wayne Tuckson welcomes the medical director of Louisville’s public health department to discuss the benefits of the different types of vaccinations and when people should get them.

Dr. Lori Caloia, MD, is a physician specializing in primary care. Last year, Caloia was named the medical director for Louisville Metro Public Health and Wellness. She formerly worked with Norton Healthcare and was an assistant professor at the University of Louisville School of Medicine.

“Vaccines are generally a part of a bacteria or virus,” Caloia says. “Sometimes that can be a live or attenuated virus –meaning that the virus has been knocked down so it can’t cause the sickness in general – or it can be a dead virus or bacteria. Those things are either injected or ingested in the body, and the goal of them is to create an immune response.

“Your body has an immune system that has memory to it,” she continues. “So, we’re trying to create memory in your body so the next time it sees this bad actor, it’s able to attack the virus or bacteria very quickly and prevent you from getting sick, or getting as sick as you might have without the vaccine.”

Controlling the Spread of Disease Through Vaccination
Caloia explains that this immune system memory varies for different types of infectious diseases. If a person contacts Hepatitis A, for example – as several people have done in a recent outbreak – they will develop lifetime immunity to the disease. The flu, on the other hand, changes from year to year and thus requires a different vaccine at the start of each flu season.

Vaccines are made in a variety of ways, Caloia says. Many are made by injecting a virus into hen’s eggs and letting it incubate, then extracting the virus after it is harvested. Other ways include growing the virus in animal cells and a newer technique that uses recombinant technology. Persons who are allergic to eggs or to certain animals should let their physician know about the allergy, but it doesn’t necessarily mean they cannot receive the vaccine.

Vaccination begins at the onset of life, Caloia says. The Hepatitis B vaccine is usually the first vaccine given, as soon as several hours after childbirth. The remainder of a child’s first round of vaccines are given at around two months of age.

Children begin developing their immune system as soon as they are born, according to Caloia. Getting those initial shots provides a booster effect to spur their own immune system growth.

“Babies tend to be protected by mom’s antibodies that have crossed the placenta, and that protection tends to last about six months, but it’s gradually getting less and less,” she says. “If a mom breastfeeds, they’ll get some protection and some immunity from the breast milk as well, but while that immunity is starting to get less and less, vaccines are helping build that baby’s own immune response to diseases.”

The introduction of vaccines revolutionized medicine, Caloia says. Incidence rates for infectious diseases such as polio, measles, and smallpox have been nearly eradicated over the past century. Caloia says that smallpox is still considered eliminated in the U.S., but adds, “Unfortunately, the rates of measles are rising pretty substantially in the United States again, despite the fact that we thought it had been eradicated.”

Caloia says that individuals should get all of their recommended vaccinations – parents should get booster shots for their children on the usual schedule, the vaccine for human papilloma virus (HPV) should be given to children around age 10-12, and adults should also receive vaccines for pneumonia, shingles, and other diseases.

“Each individual needs to get a vaccine to protect himself or herself, but when enough of the population gets vaccinated, then there’s a herd effect, meaning that the whole community can be protected from that,” she says. “For some things, the level of immunity in the community may not need to be as high as others, but with really contagious things like measles, that level has to be very, very high.”

Debunking Myths About Vaccines
In the late 1990s, a paper was published by a British doctor claiming to find a link between vaccines and autism. The paper was eventually discredited due to faulty research. However, the idea that vaccines cause autism spread through then-developing social media and still has adherents today.

“Vaccines do not cause autism,” Caloia says, “but the fear is out there.” She attributes this myth to the quite normal concerns parents have about the health of their children. Caloia recalls a PBS program several years ago that examined vaccines and included several families with children who developed illnesses around the time they received vaccinations. In nearly all cases, the two events were unrelated.

“I think that when you’re a parent, it’s a hard pill to swallow when it’s your child has something bad that’s happening to them in a medical setting,” Caloia says. “I know that if I were in their shoes I would want to have an explanation for that. And I think sometimes vaccines can be an easy scapegoat in that scenario.”

Caloia does acknowledge that persons who receive a live, attenuated vaccine as discussed above are exposed to a less potent form of the infectious disease. But she reiterates that “those are knocked down to the extent to where they cannot cause the full illness in an individual. And those live vaccines tend to produce very good immunity.”

Some people should not receive live attenuated vaccines, however, according to Caloia. Mainly, these are persons who have a compromised immune system, such as an uncontrolled HIV infection or a patient who has recently received an organ transplant. For cancer patients who are receiving chemotherapy, giving a live vaccine may be delayed, she adds.

Diabetics, on the other hand, may be advised to get additional vaccines, such as the Hepatitis B vaccine if they didn’t get it as a child or the pneumonia vaccine.

“I think often people are unaware that there is a lot of ongoing evaluation of vaccines,” Caloia says. “A manufacturer may make a vaccine, it’s out in the community, its being tested repeatedly before it’s even approved by the FDA, but then once that approval process occurs, then we continue to track any poor outcomes that might happen with a vaccine.”

This information is listed in a reporting site at the Centers for Disease Control and is updated periodically, Caloia adds.

Program Details

Kentucky Health

About Kentucky Health

Learn how to improve your health through education and increased awareness. Dr. Wayne Tuckson, a colorectal surgeon in Louisville, hosts.

TV Schedules

Jump to Recent Airdates

Upcoming

GERD: A Burning in the Chest and a Whole Lot More

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, also known as GERD, is a painful but common condition caused by irritation in the lining of the esophagus. Dr. Tuckson talks with Jeff Allen, M.D., director of laparoscopic surgery at Norton Surgical Specialists, about surgical options for GERD.

  • Friday October 22, 2021 1:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Friday October 22, 2021 12:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Friday October 22, 2021 6:00 pm ET on KET
  • Friday October 22, 2021 5:00 pm CT on KET
  • Friday October 22, 2021 11:30 pm ET on KET
  • Friday October 22, 2021 10:30 pm CT on KET
  • Sunday October 24, 2021 12:30 am ET on KETKY
  • Saturday October 23, 2021 11:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Sunday October 24, 2021 9:00 am ET on KETKY
  • Sunday October 24, 2021 8:00 am CT on KETKY
  • Sunday October 31, 2021 7:00 am ET on KET2
  • Sunday October 31, 2021 6:00 am CT on KET2

Lung Cancer: Improving Treatment and Decreasing the Mortality

Though lung cancer remains the leading cause of death from cancer in the United States, there is cause for optimism. Dr. Tuckson talks to Jason Chesney, M.D., director of the UofL Health-Brown Cancer Center in Louisville, about new developments in the treatment of lung cancer.

  • Sunday October 24, 2021 7:00 am ET on KET2
  • Sunday October 24, 2021 6:00 am CT on KET2

Carotid Artery Disease: A Precursor to a Stroke

Carotid artery disease can cut off the flow of blood to the brain, potentially causing a stroke. Dr. Tuckson discusses life-saving surgical solutions for carotid artery disease with Nick Abedi, M.D., a vascular surgeon with Fayette Surgical Associates.

  • Sunday October 24, 2021 12:30 pm ET on KET
  • Sunday October 24, 2021 11:30 am CT on KET
  • Sunday October 24, 2021 5:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Sunday October 24, 2021 4:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Monday October 25, 2021 2:00 pm ET on KET2
  • Monday October 25, 2021 1:00 pm CT on KET2
  • Friday October 29, 2021 1:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Friday October 29, 2021 12:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Friday October 29, 2021 6:00 pm ET on KET
  • Friday October 29, 2021 5:00 pm CT on KET
  • Friday October 29, 2021 11:30 pm ET on KET
  • Friday October 29, 2021 10:30 pm CT on KET
  • Sunday October 31, 2021 12:30 am ET on KETKY
  • Saturday October 30, 2021 11:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Sunday October 31, 2021 9:00 am ET on KETKY
  • Sunday October 31, 2021 8:00 am CT on KETKY
  • Sunday November 7, 2021 7:00 am ET on KET2
  • Sunday November 7, 2021 6:00 am CT on KET2

Environmental Pollution: Trees and Bushes as the Fix

Ted Smith, Ph.D., the director of the Center for Healthy Air, Water and Soil at the UofL Christina Lee Brown Envirome Institute, talks about how planting trees can reduce air pollution, decrease certain health risks and encourage participation in outdoor activities.

  • Sunday October 31, 2021 12:30 pm ET on KET
  • Sunday October 31, 2021 11:30 am CT on KET
  • Sunday October 31, 2021 5:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Sunday October 31, 2021 4:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Monday November 1, 2021 2:00 pm ET on KET2
  • Monday November 1, 2021 1:00 pm CT on KET2
  • Friday November 5, 2021 1:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Friday November 5, 2021 12:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Friday November 5, 2021 6:00 pm ET on KET
  • Friday November 5, 2021 5:00 pm CT on KET
  • Friday November 5, 2021 11:30 pm ET on KET
  • Friday November 5, 2021 10:30 pm CT on KET
  • Sunday November 7, 2021 12:30 am ET on KETKY
  • Saturday November 6, 2021 11:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Sunday November 7, 2021 9:00 am ET on KETKY
  • Sunday November 7, 2021 8:00 am CT on KETKY
  • Sunday November 14, 2021 7:00 am ET on KET2
  • Sunday November 14, 2021 6:00 am CT on KET2

Glaucoma and Cataracts: What's Clear and Are They Inevitable?

Dr. Tuckson talks with ophthalmologist Frank Burns, MD, of Middletown Eye Care, about glaucoma and cataracts.

  • Sunday November 7, 2021 12:30 pm ET on KET
  • Sunday November 7, 2021 11:30 am CT on KET
  • Sunday November 7, 2021 5:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Sunday November 7, 2021 4:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Monday November 8, 2021 2:00 pm ET on KET2
  • Monday November 8, 2021 1:00 pm CT on KET2
  • Friday November 12, 2021 1:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Friday November 12, 2021 12:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Friday November 12, 2021 6:00 pm ET on KET
  • Friday November 12, 2021 5:00 pm CT on KET
  • Friday November 12, 2021 11:30 pm ET on KET
  • Friday November 12, 2021 10:30 pm CT on KET
  • Sunday November 14, 2021 12:30 am ET on KETKY
  • Saturday November 13, 2021 11:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Sunday November 14, 2021 9:00 am ET on KETKY
  • Sunday November 14, 2021 8:00 am CT on KETKY
  • Sunday November 21, 2021 7:00 am ET on KET2
  • Sunday November 21, 2021 6:00 am CT on KET2

Medical Information: Discerning the Wheat from the Chaff

  • Sunday November 14, 2021 12:30 pm ET on KET
  • Sunday November 14, 2021 11:30 am CT on KET
  • Sunday November 14, 2021 5:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Sunday November 14, 2021 4:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Monday November 15, 2021 2:00 pm ET on KET2
  • Monday November 15, 2021 1:00 pm CT on KET2
  • Friday November 19, 2021 1:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Friday November 19, 2021 12:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Friday November 19, 2021 6:00 pm ET on KET
  • Friday November 19, 2021 5:00 pm CT on KET
  • Friday November 19, 2021 11:30 pm ET on KET
  • Friday November 19, 2021 10:30 pm CT on KET
  • Sunday November 21, 2021 12:30 am ET on KETKY
  • Saturday November 20, 2021 11:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Sunday November 21, 2021 9:00 am ET on KETKY
  • Sunday November 21, 2021 8:00 am CT on KETKY

Oral Cancer and HPV: The Surprising Connection

  • Sunday November 21, 2021 12:30 pm ET on KET
  • Sunday November 21, 2021 11:30 am CT on KET
Jump to Upcoming Airdates

Recent

GERD: A Burning in the Chest and a Whole Lot More

  • Monday October 18, 2021 2:00 pm ET on KET2
  • Monday October 18, 2021 1:00 pm CT on KET2
  • Sunday October 17, 2021 5:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Sunday October 17, 2021 4:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Sunday October 17, 2021 12:30 pm ET on KET
  • Sunday October 17, 2021 11:30 am CT on KET

Lung Cancer: Improving Treatment and Decreasing the Mortality

  • Sunday October 17, 2021 9:00 am ET on KETKY
  • Sunday October 17, 2021 8:00 am CT on KETKY
  • Sunday October 17, 2021 12:30 am ET on KETKY
  • Saturday October 16, 2021 11:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Friday October 15, 2021 11:30 pm ET on KET
  • Friday October 15, 2021 10:30 pm CT on KET
  • Friday October 15, 2021 6:00 pm ET on KET
  • Friday October 15, 2021 5:00 pm CT on KET
  • Friday October 15, 2021 1:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Friday October 15, 2021 12:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Monday October 11, 2021 2:00 pm ET on KET2
  • Monday October 11, 2021 1:00 pm CT on KET2
  • Sunday October 10, 2021 5:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Sunday October 10, 2021 4:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Sunday October 10, 2021 12:30 pm ET on KET
  • Sunday October 10, 2021 11:30 am CT on KET

Nutrition and Weight Management

  • Sunday October 10, 2021 7:00 am ET on KET2
  • Sunday October 10, 2021 6:00 am CT on KET2

Medications: A Modern Miracle, But Are They Safe and Available

  • Sunday October 17, 2021 7:00 am ET on KET2
  • Sunday October 17, 2021 6:00 am CT on KET2
  • Sunday October 10, 2021 9:00 am ET on KETKY
  • Sunday October 10, 2021 8:00 am CT on KETKY
  • Sunday October 10, 2021 12:30 am ET on KETKY
  • Saturday October 9, 2021 11:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Friday October 8, 2021 11:30 pm ET on KET
  • Friday October 8, 2021 10:30 pm CT on KET
  • Friday October 8, 2021 6:00 pm ET on KET
  • Friday October 8, 2021 5:00 pm CT on KET
  • Friday October 8, 2021 1:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Friday October 8, 2021 12:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Monday October 4, 2021 2:00 pm ET on KET2
  • Monday October 4, 2021 1:00 pm CT on KET2
  • Sunday October 3, 2021 5:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Sunday October 3, 2021 4:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Sunday October 3, 2021 12:30 pm ET on KET
  • Sunday October 3, 2021 11:30 am CT on KET

The Immune System: Not Just Fighting Infections

  • Sunday October 3, 2021 9:00 am ET on KETKY
  • Sunday October 3, 2021 8:00 am CT on KETKY
  • Sunday October 3, 2021 7:00 am ET on KET2
  • Sunday October 3, 2021 6:00 am CT on KET2
  • Sunday October 3, 2021 12:30 am ET on KETKY
  • Saturday October 2, 2021 11:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Friday October 1, 2021 11:30 pm ET on KET
  • Friday October 1, 2021 10:30 pm CT on KET
  • Friday October 1, 2021 6:00 pm ET on KET
  • Friday October 1, 2021 5:00 pm CT on KET
  • Friday October 1, 2021 1:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Friday October 1, 2021 12:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Sunday September 26, 2021 5:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Sunday September 26, 2021 4:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Sunday September 26, 2021 12:30 pm ET on KET
  • Sunday September 26, 2021 11:30 am CT on KET

New Approaches to Shoulder Replacement

  • Monday September 27, 2021 2:00 pm ET on KET2
  • Monday September 27, 2021 1:00 pm CT on KET2
  • Sunday September 26, 2021 9:00 am ET on KETKY
  • Sunday September 26, 2021 8:00 am CT on KETKY
  • Sunday September 26, 2021 7:00 am ET on KET2
  • Sunday September 26, 2021 6:00 am CT on KET2
  • Sunday September 26, 2021 12:30 am ET on KETKY
  • Saturday September 25, 2021 11:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Friday September 24, 2021 11:30 pm ET on KET
  • Friday September 24, 2021 10:30 pm CT on KET
  • Friday September 24, 2021 6:00 pm ET on KET
  • Friday September 24, 2021 5:00 pm CT on KET
  • Sunday September 19, 2021 5:30 pm ET on KETKY
  • Sunday September 19, 2021 4:30 pm CT on KETKY
  • Sunday September 19, 2021 12:30 pm ET on KET
  • Sunday September 19, 2021 11:30 am CT on KET

Oral Healthcare: Our Teeth Should Last a Lifetime

  • Monday September 20, 2021 2:00 pm ET on KET2
  • Monday September 20, 2021 1:00 pm CT on KET2
  • Sunday September 19, 2021 9:00 am ET on KETKY
  • Sunday September 19, 2021 8:00 am CT on KETKY
  • Sunday September 19, 2021 7:00 am ET on KET2
  • Sunday September 19, 2021 6:00 am CT on KET2
  • Sunday September 19, 2021 12:30 am ET on KETKY
  • Saturday September 18, 2021 11:30 pm CT on KETKY
Top

Season 14 Episodes

2019 Legislative Review: Bills Related to Health and Health

S14 E25 Length 26:47 Premiere Date 5.12.19

Lead and Other Everyday Environmental Dangers

S14 E24 Length 26:59 Premiere Date 5.5.19

Tobacco Cessation: The Power of Group Education and Support

S14 E23 Length 28:46 Premiere Date 4.28.19

Quality and Safety in Healthcare: What's Important

S14 E22 Length 27:07 Premiere Date 4.21.19

Vaccinations: Who, What, When, and Why?

S14 E21 Length 26:33 Premiere Date 4.14.19

The Adolescent Brain and Substance Use

S14 E20 Length 27:09 Premiere Date 4.7.19

Epilepsy: Medical and Surgical Treatment

S14 E19 Length 27:33 Premiere Date 3.31.19

Community Health Workers: Care Away from the Clinic

S14 E18 Length 27:23 Premiere Date 3.24.19

The Flu: It's Not Just a Bad Cold

S14 E17 Length 26:56 Premiere Date 2.24.19

Financial and Mechanical Ways to Protect Our Teeth

S14 E16 Length 27:07 Premiere Date 2.17.19

Aging Optimally

S14 E15 Length 27:15 Premiere Date 2.10.19

Colon Cancer: To Screen or Not to Screen Is Not a Question

S14 E14 Length 27:16 Premiere Date 2.3.19

Autism

S14 E13 Length 26:34 Premiere Date 1.27.19

Leukemia and Lymphoma

S14 E12 Length 26:59 Premiere Date 1.20.19

Hypertension: The Silent but Consequential Disease

S14 E11 Length 26:57 Premiere Date 1.13.19

Genetic Testing: Not a Parlor Game

S14 E10 Length 27:01 Premiere Date 1.6.19

Trauma and Toxic Stress

S14 E9 Length 26:57 Premiere Date 12.16.18

Cancer and Immunotherapy

S14 E8 Length 27:10 Premiere Date 12.9.18

Intestinal Biome: We're in This Gut Together

S14 E7 Length 27:47 Premiere Date 11.18.18

Community Health Centers: Taking the Clinic to the Patient

S14 E6 Length 27:20 Premiere Date 11.11.18

Arthritis

S14 E5 Length 26:58 Premiere Date 11.4.18

Thyroid Disease

S14 E4 Length 27:21 Premiere Date 10.28.18

Breast Cancer

S14 E3 Length 27:05 Premiere Date 10.21.18

Weight Loss: Reasons, Options, Benefits

S14 E2 Length 28:48 Premiere Date 10.14.18

Chiropractic: A Good Back and Neck for a Healthy Body

S14 E1 Length 25:23 Premiere Date 10.7.18

Explore KET